Feedipedia
Animal feed resources information system
Feedipedia
Feedipedia

Did you find the information you were looking for? Is it valuable to you? Feedipedia is encountering funding shortage. We need your help to keep providing reference-based feeding recommendations for your animals.
Would you consider donating? If yes, please click on the button Donate.

Any amount is the welcome. Even one cent is helpful to us!

Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes)

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Peach-palm [English]; perzikpalm [Dutch]; palmier pêche, parepon, parépou (French Guyana)[French]; Pfirsichpalme [German]; Barackpálma [Hungarian]; Персиковая пальма [Russian]; contaduro, chantaduro, chontaduro, (Colombia, Ecuador); macana, macanilla, palma piva; peyibaye, pejivalle, pejibaye (Costa Rica, Nicaragua), pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao, macana (Venezuela), tembé, palma de Castilla (Bolivia), pixbae (Panama)[Spanish]; pewa, pewa palm [Trinidad & Tobago]; pupunheira, pupunha [Portuguese (Brazil)]; פופוניה [Hebrew]; 桃椰子 [Chinese]; チョンタドゥーロ [Japanese]; Cachipay [Vietnamese]

The botanical epithet (gasipaes) is after the vernacular name used in the Magdalena River valley of Colombia (cachipay).

Synonyms 

Bactris ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart., Bactris insignis (Mart.) Baill., Bactris speciosa (Mart.) H. Karst., Bactris utilis (Oerst.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Hemsl., Guilelma chontaduro Triana, Guilelma ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) H. Wendl., Guilelma gasipaes (Kunth) L. H. Bailey, Guilelma insignis Mart., Guilelma speciosa Mart., Guilelma utilis Oerst., Martinezia ciliata Ruiz & Pav.

Description 

Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) is a dual purpose tropical tree cultivated for its edible nutritious fruit that yields pulp, flour, cooking oil, and oil meal, and for heart-of-palm delicacy. The crop residues and coproducts of fruit or heart-of-palm production are discarded fruits, seeds, oil cake or oil meal resulting from oil extraction, rinds of heart-of-palm, and the leaves. All these co-products and crop residues can be used for animal feeding.

Morphology

Peach palm is a tree, that can reach 6- 24 m in height and 12-26 cm in diameter. Peach palm is typically multistemmed (1-13 cylindrical, straight stems) and caespitose, although single-stemmed trees occur. Most peach palms have numerous and sharp thorns, dark in colour and up to 14 cm long on the internodes. Peach palms produce suckers (1-12) arising from basal axilary buds. The suckers are managed for heart-of-palm production. The tree has an adventitious root system that forms a thick mat that may extend 4-5 m around the plant and can go as deep as 2 m in the soil. The stems have 10-30 petiolated, dropping, pinnate leaves, 1.8 to 4 m in length. The leaflets are numerous (up to 400) and may be armed on their midribs and margins. The leaflets are 58-115 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, and linear-lanceolate in shape. Peach palm inflorescences develop in the axil of the leaves. The spathe is 51-126 cm long, 6-18 cm wide, 2-15 mm thick and weighs 1-6 kg. The spathe’s internal surface is cream or light yellow. The peduncle is 10-17 cm long and rarely has spines. Peach palm is monoecious female flowers develop irregularly among male flowers. Male flowers are cream-light yellow, small (2-6 mm long and 2-6 mm wide). Female flowers are usually yellow, or rarely green, larger than male flowers (3-13 mm long x 4-12 mm wide). The fruits develop on bunches that can be up to 20kg. The fruit is a drupe, usually shiny orange, red or yellow in colour and ovoid in shape, about 2-7 cm long x 2-8 cm wide and weighs 4-186 g. The seed is embedded in a dark endocarp centrally located in the flesh of the fruit (Mora-Urpi et al., 1997).

There are many varieties. Varieties that are producing fruits are generally thorny and, those whose fruits are for human consumption have a high oil content (10-20%) while those for animal fodder have high protein content (up to 14% in pulp and seeds) (Nogueira et al., 1995).

In Brazilian fruit production, varieties with different periods of fruiting are cultivated so that the harvest period can be longer ((East Amazonian varieties produce fruit from February to May and varieties from river Solimoes are producing from September to December).

The varieties cultivated for heart-of-palm have been selected to be deprived of spines which makes their handling easier and safer (Nogueira et al., 1995).

Uses

The pulpy fruit can be cooked in salted water and consumed directly or made into flour for infant formula and baked goods. Raw fruits contain trypsin inhibitor which is detrimental to digestion. Moreover they contain some calcium oxalates which have burning effect in the mouth. Both effects are alleviated by cooking and this is a reason why peach palm fruits are cooked prior to be consumed(Mora-Urpi et al., 1997; Nogueira et al., 1995). Immature inflorescence can also be eaten like fruits (Ecocrop, 2019)

Peach palm fruits can also be extracted for their edible (cooking) oil content and the cake or meal can be used in rations for farm animals and aquaculture (Blanco-Metzler et al., 1992a; Arkcoll et al., 1984). Seeds composition indicates that they can also be valuable source of feed for animals (Zumbado et al., 1984).

Peach palm is also the main source of gourmet heart-of-palm, an internationally commercialised delicacy. The processing of heart-of-palm is a major agro-industry in producing countries (Villachica, 1996).

In heart-of-palm plantations, discarded leaf and stem parts could be used as pulp for paper, organic fertilizer and animal fodder.

The wood (chonta) was a traditional material used by the Amerindians for bows, blowpipes, darts, spears, etc. Also used for tool handles but prone to split. The leaves were used to dye fibres in green colour (Mora-Urpi et al., 1997). The leaves can be used to make baskets (Carvajal et al., 2014). Some varieties of peach palm are also ornamentals (Carvajal et al., 2014).

Distribution 

Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) originated from South America and was domesticated and used as a staple food crop by many pre-Columbian Amerindian communities in the lowland humid neotropics (Patiño, 1963). The Amerindians used to cook and eat the fruit. Another way to prepare it was to let it ferment during a variable number of days before using it for beverage, according to the length of fermentation de alcohol content was more or less important: the stronger beverage was used for ceremonies while the slightly fermented was a daily drink. Amerindians also used to smoke the fruit for better preservation (Mora-Urpi et al., 1997).

In the wild, peach palm is found in disturbed natural ecosystems, principally along river beds and in primary forest gaps. Wild trees are generally scattered or occur at low density in small patches.

Cultivated peach palm is adapted to a wide range of ecological conditions, in ecosystems created by humans, such as secondary forest fallows that develop after slash-and-burn agriculture. Peach palm does well in the conditions that prevail in the humid tropics of Latin America, on deep, fertile, well-drained soils at relatively low altitudes (<800 m asl), with abundant but well-distributed rainfall (2000-5000 mm/year) and average temperatures above 24°C (Mora-Urpi et al., 1997). In Costa Rica, at altitudes higher than 700 m, peach palm produces less (Ecocrop, 2019). Peach palm still produces relatively well on poor degraded soils, like highly eroded laterites with 50% aluminium-saturated acid soils that are caracteristic of slash-and-burn agriculture, but production decreases in the long term without additional nutrient inputs. Peach palm does not tolerate waterlogged soils and is tolerant of relatively short dry seasons (3-4 months) if soils are not excessively sandy. However,dry seasons significantly reduce growth and yield. While the seeds require some shade for germination, the tree does need full sunlight (Mora-Urpi et al., 1997).

Peach palm is one of the 5 well-known palm species (encompassing betel nut palm (Areca catechu), coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) of major economic importance in the world (Johnson, 2011).

Processes 

Fruit silage

It was possible to ensile peach palm pulp or whole fruit with or without urea, poultry litter or calcium oxide (Arroyo et al., 2004). . It was also possible to enhance the quality of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage by the addition of 32% peach palm fruit (fresh matter) in the forage (Rojas-Bourrillon et al., 1998).

Heart-of-palm silage

The sheaths surrounding the heart-of-palm could be ensiled without or with urea or calcium oxide. The addition of chemicals could not prevent fermentation losses during the ensiling process and failed at improving silage quality (Schmidt et al., 2010).

Forage management 

Establishment

Peach palm can be propagated by seeds or cuttings. Though propagation by seeds is easier, and less expensive in terms of workload, it is recommended to use vegetative propagation for heart-of-palm production because this way of propagation provides thornless palms and also allows to have exactly the same quality along generations as new palm trees are clones (Nogueira et al., 1995). When propagation is done by seeds, the seeds should be preserved at not less than 35% moisture and at temperatures higher than 15°C. Once sown, germination occurs within 45-150 days depending on the quality of seeds. Ideal germination temperature is between 25 and 30°C. The seeds can be sown in plastic bags at 2 cm depth and then transplanted when the seedlings are 10 cm high. The young plants are then allowed to grow during 6 or 7 months and will be transplanted in their final place during the rainy season so that they can develop enough before the next dry season (Nogueira et al., 1995).

Cutting the offshoots (suckers) does not impair plant health. There are two ways to manage peach palm trees depending on the intended production.

Fruit production

If the peach palms are cultivated by small-holders, they can be sown at low density (3-20 plants/ha) in home gardens to make multistrata agroforestry systems (Mora-Urpi et al., 1997). In commercial systems for fruit production, density of 400-500 plants/ha were recommended. Peach palm starts producing fruits within 3-5 years after plantation and can produce during 50-75 years (Mora-Urpi et al., 1997; Overbeek, 1990). Fruit yields are variable, highest values reported are within 10-30 tonnes/ha, but average ones are only about 2-3 tonnes/ha. Yields of 50-100 kilos per trunk per year are not unusual. It is possible to have 2 fruit harvest/year (Ecocrop, 2019).

Heart-of-palm production

For the production of heart-of-palm, the recommended density is between 3 000 to 20 000 plants (Mora-Urpi et al., 1997). The palms attain harvests size in 18-30 months and thereafter can be harvested every (6)-9-15 months by cutting the suckers (Ecocrop, 2019). When then are ready to harvest, it was recommended to cut one stem/tree and then in the subsequent cuts, it will be possible to cut 2 stems (suckers)/palm tree (Nogueira et al., 1995). In Brazil, heart-of-palm yield could be 1200 kg/ha (Nogueira et al., 1995).

The following video provides an example of heart-of-palm plantation, harvest and processing in Costa Rica

Environmental impact 

Sustainable crop, forest reclamation

Peach palm that is planted for heart-of-palm production is a sustainable monoculture. It can be cultivated and harvested in the long term without compromising peach palm survival. Peach palm cultivation is regarded as a valuable solution to replace the almost extinct species Juçara (Euterpe edulis) because of the intensive cuttings which have been done in the Atlantic Forest without replanting (Marañhao, 2012).

Waste production and recycling

During the processing of heart-of-palm, the palm peach stem are derinded and this operation was reported to produce 48% rind residues at the factory. The disposal of residues may be an issue for the environment. Recent work suggest to chop the rinds at the factory to transfom them into natural fertilizer, animal feed, raw material for the furniture and handicraft industry (Varella et al., 2021). On small factories, the sheath can be directly fed to cows.

 

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Peach palm fruit whole meal or pulp

Leterme et al., 2005

Pereira et al., 2019a;

Yuyama et al., 2003

Peach palm pulp silage

Heart-of-palm sheaths

Potential constraints 

Peach palm fruits were reported to contain several secundary metabolites like triterpenes, reducing sugars, catachins, non protein amino acids and saponins (Pizzani et al., 2008a). These metabolites could be detrimental to digestion, however, it was shown in the same experiment that peach palm fruit dry matter and organic matter in vitro degradability were high: respectively 80% (IVDMD) and almost 85% (IVOMD) (Pizzani et al., 2008a).

Trypsin inhibitor

Several parts of peach palm fruit have antitrypsin activity. However the more effective trypsin inhibitor (reducing by 53.7% the enzyme activity) was found in the skin of the fruit (Gomez et al., 1998). Peeling and cooking alleviated trypsin inhibition (Mora-Urpi et al., 1997)

Lectins

A lectin that agglutinates specifically sheep erythrocytes was found in the pulp of peach palm fruit and another that agglutinates inespecifically human erythrocytes and also sheep, rabbit and horse erythrocytes was detected in the seed (Gomez et al., 1998).

Oxalates

Oxalate-like crystals were frequently found, especially in and just under the exocarp of the peach palm fruit (Arkcoll et al., 1984). Oxalates or calcium-oxalates may reduce palatability as they cause a burning sensation in the mouth of humans and animals.

Poor tryptophan availability

Poor tryptophan availability of the proteins, may have reduced rats appetite and was also reported to significantly affects appetite in pigs (Leterme et al., 2005).

Ruminants 

Peach palm meal

Degradability

Peach palm flour (resulting from the grinding of integral pulp of peach palm fruit) was used in a degradability trial to assess this raw material as a source of energy for ruminants. The volume of gas produced during the in vitro incubation after 24h was 432.5 ml/g MS.The fractional rate was of 0.33 ml/h, and the latency period was 3.72h. The degradability of the dry matter and the content of metabolizable energy for the integral flour were 79.34% and 14.11 MJ/kg MS respectively. It was shown from these degradability rate that integral meal of peach palm could be used as an energy source for ruminant feeding (Pizzani et al., 2008b).

Lambs

Raw peach palm meal could be used to replace maize meal in ram lambs (21 kg) during 87 days. However, all parameters of intake and performance decreased linearly with the increasing of peach palm meal and it was recommended to limit peach palm meal inclusion at 40% replacement of maize meal in lambs diets (Santos et al., 2016).

Goats

Peach palm meal produced after seed extraction of fruits in a heart-of-palm plantation was used as a replacer of maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM basis) in wether goats diet. Increasing amount of peach palm meal had deleterious effect on all parameters (intake, digestibility, and growth performance). It was suggested to limit inclusion at 10% maize replacement in kids goats (Pereira et al., 2019a; Pereira et al., 2019b).

Peach palm starch

Degradability

Peach palm starch could be extracted from the dry pulp of peach palm fruit by humid separation and centrifugation and its in vitro degradability was assessed in order to know the potential of peach palm starch as ruminant feed. The volume of gas produced in vitro was 516.7 ml/g MS and the fractional rate was 0,035 ml/h. The latency period was 2.96 h. The degradability of the dry matter was very high (98.68%) and the content of metabolizable energy was 16.90 MJ/kg MS. It was concluded that the starch could be used as an energy source to feed ruminants (Pizzani et al., 2008b).

Pulp silage

Degradability

Peach palm pulp silage was assessed in young steers (350 kg) grazing star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and bread grass (Brachiaria brizantha) in order to study rumen parameters and degradability. It was found that the addition pulp silage to the steers diet had no significant effect on rumen parameters like pH, ammonia production, or rate of passage. Increasing the level of peach palm pulp silage in the diet however decreased dry matter degradability and cell wall degradability of both grasses. It was concluded that the inclusion of peach palm pulp silage would require additional protein source to be effectively used in ruminants rations (Hio et al., 1998). 

Bulls

Young grazing bulls were offered twice a day, a supplement of peach palm pulp silage at 1%BW alone or added with 3 g of N /100 g of fermentable carbohydrate from the peach-palm provided by urea or poultry litter during 122 days (Arroyo et al., 2004). Supplementing grazing bulls with peach palm pulp only resulted in 0.709 g daily gain while it was over 1 kg when the peach palm pulp silage was added either urea or poutry litter. Carcass weight was increased by 10% in bulls fed peach palm pulp silage and any of the protein supplements (Arroyo et al., 2004).

Heart-of-palm residues

Digestibility

Heart of palm silage (ground sheaths) alone or in combination with 10% of cassava meal, with10% of corn meal, with 10% of palm kernel cake, or with 1% of urea and wilted was assessed for preservation and digestibility. The silage acidity was satisfactory at pH ranging from 3.78 to 3.93. The addition of cassava or maize decreased all types of fibre (NDF, ADF, CB and Lignin) and increased in vivo DM digestibility. It was concluded that ensiling peach palm sheath with 10% cassava meal improved its quality (Oliveira et al., 2010).

Lambs

Fresh heart-of-palm residues (resulting from the derinding of the trunk) either enriched with urea, or used to make total mixed rations (TMR) and added with concentrate (TMR1), or made into silage and added with concentrate (TMR2), or made into silage and enriched with 15% maize meal and added with concentrate (TMR3) were offered to lambs. There were differences in feed intake between the 3 TMRs and the heart of palm residues enriched with urea. Among the lambs offered TMRs, there were different performance between those eating fresh or ensiled TMR but there were no difference in carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Fresh residues of heart-of-palm plus concentrate yielded better lamb performance than the silage of these residues. However there were no difference in carcass characteristics. This experiment also showed that feeding heart-of-palm residues as only roughage could only meet maintenance requirements and not growth requirements (Cabral et al., 2013).

 

Pigs 

Peach palm fruit or residues from processing make a good feed for pigs (Ecocrop, 2019). However, the use of peach palm products known to contain trypsin inhibitors was shown to decrease trypsin activity after 6 weeks of inclusion of peach palm meal in pigs diet (Leon et al., 2014).

Peach palm meal

A series of experiments was done to assess the potential of peach palm meal either supplemented with synthetic lysine or not as a feed resource in growing and finishing pigs diets (Colina et al., 2011; Colina-Rivero et al., 2010)

The growth and carcass traits of finishing pigs ( 67.25 +/- 1.17 kg) were monitored during 35 days of a diet containing 25% peach palm meal with or without synthetic lysine -SL) (0.27%). Average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion (ADFI/ADG) did not significantly change at any peach palm meal level or SL level, but the ADG of pigs fed on peach palm meal and added SL was 216g/d lower than the ADG of pigs on control and added SL. Carcass caracteristics did not vary consistently (Colina-Rivero et al., 2010). 

Later, inclusion of peach palm whole meal at either 16% or 32% were reported to decrease triglycerides and cholesterol, in growing and finishing pigs. Oleic acid in growing pigs blood increased at highest level (32%) of inclusion. The addition of synthetic lysine to the peach palm diet increased (p<0.05) linoleic acid (27.83% to 31.29%) in growing pigs blood while palmitic acid (saturated fatty acid) decreased (Colina et al., 2011). Feeding pigs on peach palm meal ha no deleterious effect on blood lipid parameters from which it was suggested it would have no deleterious effect on meat lipid parameters (Colina et al., 2011). This suggestion was confirmed by a subsequent experiment which reported that the inclusion of peach palm meal in growing or fattening pigs diet had no deleterious effects on meat lipids and that the addition of synthetic lysine yielded leaner meat (Jerez-Timaure et al., 2011).

Fresh peach palm fruit

Pigs could be fed on fresh peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) in partial (20% or 30%) replacement of concentrate during 12 weeks, in Ecuador. The mean daily gain was not changed between control and test diets. However feed intake decreased and mathematically, feed conversion ratio was also improved. It was thus sugested that fresh peach palm fruits could be economically used by small pig producers in Ecuador (Sanchez et al., 2017).

Solid state fermented fruit

Solid state fermented (SEF) discarded fruits of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) inoculated with natural yogurt, wheat chaff, and molasses could be included at up to 40% dietary level for the feeding of growing pigs without any deleterious effect on digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, nitrogen free extracts, and gross energy (Caicedo et al., 2019).

Poultry 

Peach palm fruit or residues from processing make a good feed for poultry (Ecocrop, 2019).

Peach palm meal

Laying hens

It was shown that peach palm meal could be fed to pullets as a replacer of maize in isocaloric and isoproteic diets at up to 75% without any effect on feed consumption, weight gain or feed conversion ratio (Murillo et al., 1991). In adult hens, the level of substition of maize by peach palm meal could be as high as 90% without modifying intake or egg production. The same experiment assessed the possibility of using raw peach palm meal which is known to contain several antinutritional factors. It was reported that it could replace 30% maize in the diet with no signicant effect but smaller egg weight (Murillo et al., 1991). These experiments in laying hens also showed that peach palm meal had positive effect on yolk colour (Murillo et al., 1991).

Broilers
Raw peach palm meal

Raw peach palm meal did not appear to be a good source of feed for broilers. In Colombia, broilers fed on diets containing peach palm meal (in mixture with maize meal or with maize meal and fish meal) could not have the same weight gain as broilers fed on commercial diet: they were approximately 0.9 kg lighter, their feed intake was also reduced (Cruz et al., 1989). These result were consistent with a previous experiment in Costa Rica were broilers fed on raw peach palm meal had significant lower growth and feed intake than broilers fed on control (Zumbado et al., 1988).

Heat-treated peach palm meal

Heat treatments have been performed so as to reduce the level of heat labile antinutritional factors in peach palm meal. Auto-claving and extrusion were reported to enhance feed value of peach palm meal in broilers (Zumbado et al., 1988). Sun drying did not prove to be effective in improving feed value of peach palm meal for broilers (Zumbado et al., 1988). Extrusion at different temperatures was also assessed and the experiment concluded that extrusion temperatures between 100 and 125°C were the most desirable to improve the nutritional value of peach palm meal in broilers diet (Murillo et al., 1992). The most effective heat treatment consisted however in  the sequence of cooking under 2 kg/cm² pressure followed by cooking and drying at 100°C during 170 min. The peach palm meal resulting from this process could be used during 46 days to replace 100% maize meal in broilers diet (Murillo et al., 1992).

According to the previous results, cooked (at 100-110°C) and dried peach palm meal was tested as feed for goslings (0-4 weeks) of 4 different breeds (Toulouse, Embden, Chinese and African). Four levels of substitution of maize in the goslings diet were evaluated (0, 25, 50 and 75%) during 4 weeks. The experiment showed that feed intake and weight gain decreased as the level of substitution increased. However, the feed conversion ratio and the feed costs/kg of meat were significantly reduced , and it was concluded that peach ) palm meal was a valuable replacer of maize provided the substitution rate remains below 50%  (Arroyo et al., 2014).

Peach palm fruit peel

Peach  peels (Bactris gasipaes), enriched or not with the (Pleurotus ostreatus) fungus were included in the diet of broiler at increasing levels (0,10% and 20%). Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, skin pigmentation and cost benefit ratio of the portions were assessed.  Whatever form and level of peach palm peels used, no production parameter of broilers changed except for skin pigmentation which was higher with 20% peach palm peels enriched with fungus. Positive effect in economic terms was also observed at this level of inclusion (Campo Gaviria et al., 2017).

Peach  palm oil

It was possible to use peach palm oil as a source of energy in broilers diet so as to provide 25% of total dietary energy. The inclusion of peach palm oil was compared to that of crude Elaeis guineensis palm,  that of maize oil and to beef tallow. No differences were detected in body-weight gain or feed efficiency between the chickens fed on the peach palm oil and those fed on the other oils/fat. Blood lipid parameters such as total serum cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) were not affected either.  Chickens fed on peach palm oil had a more favourable LDLc:HDLc ratio (lower) than those fed on the other diets (Baldizan et al., 2010).

 

Rabbits 

No information seems available in the international literature (March 2021) on the use of any part of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) in rabbit feeding. However the fruits of this palm are traditionally consumed by human in South America (Ugalde et al., 2002; Johnson, 2011) and can be used in balanced diets for pigs (Gonzalez-Arayjo et al., 1997; León et al., 2014), for chickens (Zumbado et al., 1988) or rats (Rojas et al., 2005) without necessity to separate the seeds from the fruit pulp in animal feeds in general (Zumbado et al., 1984).

Peach palm fruits are also included in the ration of big rodents (pacas and agouti) when raised in captivity by Amerindians in Venezuela (Govoni et al., 2005). For these reasons, peach palm fruits (fresh or dried) may most probably be used in rabbit feeding as a safe high energy safe (16.2 MJ calculated DE/kg DM) with low protein (5.4% DM) and fibre (2.0% crude fibre and 3.9% NDF in DM) (Rojas et al., 2005). For balanced diets, the proteins deficiency in sulphur amino acids (SSA) of peach palm must be taken in account. With only 3.2% of proteins, the SSA content cover only 85% of rabbits requirements (Lebas 2013; Zumbado et al., 1988).

Fish 

Black pacu (Colossoma macropomum) and red pacu (Piaractus brachypomus)

Peach palm meal could be used in black pacu (Colossoma macropomum) fingerlings (32 g) and could fully replace maize meal in a maize (55%)-soybean meal (10%)-fishmeal (29%) based diet containing without altering fish growth rate or fish quality (Mori-Pinedo et al., 1999). In an other experiment black pacu fingerlings (22 g) and red pacu fingerlings (2.56 g) routinely fed on a soybean meal (40%)-wheat bran (30%)-rice bran (12%) and fishmeal (10%) based diet could be offered peach palm meal so as to completely replace wheat bran without altering weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity, and lysozyme (Lochmann et al., 2009). 

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 
References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/567 Last updated on July 22, 2021, 18:20