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Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)

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Description
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Common names 

Grass pea, chickling pea, chickling vetch, dogtooth pea, grass peavine, Indian pea, Riga pea, wedge peavine [English]; gesse commune, gesse cultivée, lentille d'Espagne, pois carré [French]; chícharo [Portuguese]; almorta, chícharo [Spanish]; Saat-Platterbse [German]; cicerchia [Italian]; plattvial [Swedish]; جلبان مزروع [Arabic]; খেসারি ডাল [Bengali]; 家山黧豆 [Chinese]; लतरी [Hindi]; グラスピー [Japanese]; लाख [Marathi]; Чина посевная [Russian]

Description 

Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a dual purpose annual legume grown for its seeds for human consumption, and fodder for livestock feeding. Grass pea is one of the preferred legume seeds in low fertility soils and arid areas because of its outstanding tolerance of dry or flooding conditions, but its contains a toxic component that may cause paralysis in humans and livestock if consumed in excessive amounts (Campbell, 1997).

Grass pea has a variable habit and can be trailing or climbing. It is many-branched with slender stems up to 60 cm in height. It has a deep and strong taproot. The leaves are pinnate, opposite, encompassing 2 pairs of leaflets and a terminal tendril. The leaflets are sessile, linear-lanceolate, 5-7.5 cm long x 1 cm broad. The flowers are solitary, borne on axillary shoots. They can be bright blue, reddish purple, red, pink, or white in colour. Grass pea fruits are pods with 3-5 seeds. The pods are oblong, flat, about 2.5-4.5 cm in length, 0.6-1.0 cm in width and slightly curved. The seeds are 4-7 mm in diameter, angled and wedge-shaped. They are usually white, brownish-grey or yellow but spotted or mottled forms exist (Campbell, 1997).

Among vetch (Lathyrus) species, grass pea is the most economically important and widely cultivated crop for human consumption (Gurung et al., 2011). Grass pea seeds are a common staple food in many Asian and African countries. As a food, grass pea seeds are used in many dishes. In India, the seeds are dried, split and used to make dhal. In Ethiopia, they are ground to prepare a sauce that accompanies the traditional injera (local flatbread). In Bangladesh and Nepal, grass pea seeds are ground to make a flour used to prepare flatbreads (roti in Bangladesh and pakoda in Nepal). Grass pea flour is used to adulterate high-priced legume flours made from chickpea or mungbean seeds (Campbell, 1997). Immature pods and young plants are cooked and eaten as vegetables (Yadav et al., 2006). 

Grass pea foliage and seeds make valuable forage. They can be used fresh, dried as hay or made into silage (Emile et al., 2008; Yadav et al., 2006Campbell, 1997). Grass pea straw and chaff are particularly valuable (Yadav et al., 2006). In some countries, such as Australia, Lathyrus sativus is mainly used for fodder production. In the Sind province of Pakistan in the late 1990s, it was estimated that 60% of the crop was used for forage (Campbell, 1997).

Distribution 

Lathyrus sativus originated from the Balkan Peninsula in the early Neolithic age. It may have been the first domesticated crop in Europe around 6000 BCE. Grass pea is now widely cultivated and naturalized in many areas of southern, central and eastern Europe, around the Mediterranean Basin and in Iraq and Afghanistan. Grass pea is an economically important crop in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Ethiopia (Campbell, 1997).

Grass pea is a spring crop in temperate areas and a winter crop in subtropical regions. It can be cultivated from sea level up to an altitude of 1200 m in India, and from 1700 m to 2700 m in Ethiopia, and more generally in areas where average temperatures are within 10-25°C. Lathyrus sativus can be grown where rainfall averages 400-650 mm/year. It can withstand heavy rains in the early growth stages, and prolonged drought during grain filling. It grows well in the subtropics as a winter crop. Grass pea thrives on a wide range of soils, including poor soils and heavy clays. It is tolerant of waterlogging and of moderate alkalinity or salinity (Yadav et al., 2006).

Forage management 

Grass pea can be grown as a sole crop, in intercropping systems or in mixtures. In Ethiopia, grass pea is grown in rotation after barley or sometimes after a legume crop, such as pea or chickpea, which has been sown in April and harvested in July (Yadav et al., 2006). In Bangladesh, grass pea forage is grazed at a young stage and then let to regrow for harvesting seeds: the whole grass pea plant is pulled out when still green and let to dry in the field. The seeds are then removed, leaving valuable straw for fodder (Campbell, 1997). In France, grass pea interseeded with triticale before winter can be used for spring silage (Emile et al., 2008). In tropical regions, Lathyrus sativus is often sown among transplanted rice plants, and it grows up on residual water once water is drained and the rice harvested. It is then a good source of fresh forage for cattle (Campbell, 1997).

In Serbia, grass pea sown as a sole crop yielded 50 t fresh matter/ha and 9 t hay/ha (Mihailovic et al., 2013). When intercropped with maize, grass pea fodder yield was 7-10 t/ha and maize yields were not affected (Gowda et al., 1982). Interseeding grass pea in Bermuda grass provided higher forage yield and forage quality, as well as N fixation that benefited the companion crop (Rao et al., 2007). Grass pea sown in a mixture with triticale slightly reduced triticale yield but improved the total protein content of the crop, which could be used to make a "zero-irrigation" silage (Emile et al., 2008).

Grass pea grown for seeds in India yielded an average of 300-500 kg seeds/ha, but yields up to 1.5 t seeds/ha have been reported (Ecocrop, 2014).

Environmental impact 

Soil improver and green manure

Grass pea is an N-fixing legume that is often used to provide N to the main economic crop (Campbell, 1997). Grass pea has positive effects on soil structure as its deep taproot prevents soil compaction. When ploughed in, grass pea is a good green manure that returns nutrients to the soil and provides organic matter (Lazanyi, 2000).

Sustainable, low-input systems

A drought-resistant legume, grass pea is recommended in arid and semi-arid regions. It has low fertilizer and water requirements. It is possible to make silage out of a mixture of triticale/grass pea in areas where silage is usually made from irrigated maize or sorghum (Emile et al., 2008).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Grass pea seeds

Grass pea seeds are particularly rich in protein (26-33% DM) and starch (40-55% DM) with a relatively low fibre content (crude fibre 6% DM).The amino acid profile is rich in lysine but, like other legume seeds, grass pea seeds are particularly poor in methionine and cystine. Another limitation of Lathyrus sativus seeds is their concentration in antinutritional factors (see Potential constraints below).

Grass pea forage

Grass pea forage (fresh or hay) contains variable amounts of protein, from 15 to 30% depending on maturity.

Grass pea hulls

Grass pea seed hulls have a high fibre content (ADF more than 55%) but a medium protein content (11% DM) (Mekasha et al., 2003).

Potential constraints 

Lathyrism

Many Lathyrus species are implicated in a paralysis of humans and animals known as lathyrism, which has different causes and symptoms depending on the Lathyrus species involved (Hanbury et al., 2000). In the case of Lathyrus sativus, the seeds and vegetative parts contain a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid, ß-oxalyl-L-a,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP or BOAA). The ingestion of ODAP causes neurolathyrism, a neurodegenerative disease that damages upper motor neurons, causing irreversible paralysis of the lower limbs and sometimes death in humans and animals (Spencer et al., 1983). The susceptibility of humans to this particular form of lathyrism varies with their nutritional status, age and health. Lathyrism is more severe in people lacking Zn (Hanbury et al., 2000). Because grass pea is a hardy, drought-resistant legume, it tends to be consumed in excess when there is a lack of alternative food sources, due to poverty, war or drought, with devastating impact. In Ethiopia, an outbreak of lathyrism occurred in 1997, crippling 2000 people (Getahun et al., 1999). During the 20th century, outbreaks occurred in Afghanistan, Algeria, China, France, Germany, Italy, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Spain and Syria (Hanbury et al., 2000).

Ruminants and monogastric animals are sensitive to ODAP in varying degrees and the scientific literature is somewhat contradictory. Horses are noted as being very susceptible to lathyrism, following heavy grazing or feeding on grass pea seeds, with symptoms of paralysis of the hind limbs and death resulting in some cases. There is anecdotal evidence of pigs, sheep and cattle having died due to lathyrism after being turned into Lathyrus sp. fields (Hanbury et al., 2000). Horses, donkeys, goats and sheep developed spasticity in the hind limbs after feeding on Lathyrus sativus grain for between 1 and 3 years (Tekle Haimanot et al., 1997 cited by Hanbury et al., 2000). Poultry feeding trials (Latif et al., 1975Low et al., 1990) and pig trials (Castell et al., 1994) have reported a decrease in performance after feeding grass pea seeds, though without noting any toxic effects. However, feeding trials with sheep, calves, piglets and donkeys failed to demonstrate signs of lathyrism and effects on animal performance (though liver and kidney cells underwent pathological changes in one study) (Budag et al., 2009Dhiman et al., 1983Yan et al., 2006). In ruminants, there is some evidence that rumen microorganisms can adapt to ODAP and may destroy most of the toxin (more than 90% in 4-5h) (Farhangi, 1996 quoted by Hanbury et al., 2000Marichamy et al., 2005).

ODAP levels are highly variable and depend on variety, growth location, soil, fertiliser levels, plant part and age (Gurung et al., 2011; Jiao et al., 2006Jiao et al., 2011). In a survey of over 100 accessions from various countries, the ODAP content in grass pea seeds varied from 0.2 to 7.2 g/kg DM (Deshpande et al., 1992). In Ethiopia, other studies reported ODAP content in seeds varying from 5.4 to 8.9 g/kg DM (Urga et al., 2005) or 2.0 to 4.5 g/kg DM (Denekew et al., 2009). The green parts and the straw contain lower concentrations of ODAP: 1.9 to 3.4 and 1.3 to 2.1 g/kg DM respectively (Denekew et al., 2009).

Processing can detoxify grass pea seeds. Steeping and boiling decreased ODAP levels by 90% (Padmajaprasad et al., 1997), while extrusion reduced ODAP levels by 46% (Ramachandran et al., 2004).

Others antinutritional factors

Grass pea contains trypsin and chimotrypsin inhibitors, amylase inhibitors, lectins, tannins, phytates and oligosaccharides. Except for ODAP, most of these antinutritional factors are in lower quantities in grass pea than in other legumes and are unlikely to cause serious concern when it is fed to animals, though they may depress performance (Hanbury et al., 2000).

Ruminants 

Grass pea forage has a relatively good OM digestibility (about 68-70%).

Grass pea forage

Fresh grass pea and grass pea hay have been tested with positive results as protein supplements for ruminant fed diets based on low quality roughages.

Digestibility

Grass pea forage has a relatively good OM digestibility (about 68-70%).

Dairy cattle

In India, grass pea hay supplementing a rice straw-based diet increased the milk yield without modifying milk composition (Akbar et al., 2000). In Bangladesh, feeding fresh forage from grass pea and black gram (Vigna mungo) gave higher milk yields when the diet was supplemented with rice straw, though the legume intake was lower (Islam et al., 1995). In France, a trial compared the dairy performance of cows fed ad libitum ensiled triticale forage alone or silages combining triticale and grass pea forage, or triticale, grass pea and oat forage. All crops were grown without pesticides or irrigation. The silages containing grass pea resulted in a higher DM intake and milk yield compared to triticale silage alone, though both milk fat and milk protein decreased (Emile et al., 2008).

Country Animal Experiment Inclusion rate Main results Reference
Bangladesh Pabna (334 kg, milk yield 8 kg/d) Grass pea and Vigna mungo ad libitum as sole forage or with straw (2.5 kg/d) Ad libitum Legume DM intake was lower with straw (6.2 kg/d) than without (8.4 kg/d) but milk yield was higher (8.6 vs. 7.7 kg/d) Islam et al., 1995
India Type unknown Rice straw based diet plus concentrate with or without grass pea hay (on farm) 1 kg/d Grass pea hay supplementation increased milk yield from 2.1 to 2.5 kg/d Akbar et al., 2000
India Indigenous
(146 kg)
Rice straw based diet plus concentrate with or without grass pea hay (on station)   Grass pea hay supplementation increased milk yield, from 1.34 to 1.53 kg/d, but not milk composition; OM digestibility of the diet increased from 64 to 69% Akbar et al., 2000
France Type unknown (563 kg, milk yield 27 kg/d) Grass pea + triticale compared to pure triticale silage Ad libitum DM intake and milk yield increased (10.1 vs. 9.0 and 20.6 vs. 19.6 kg/d) but milk fat and protein content decreased (39.5 vs. 41.8 and 26.7 vs. 27.8 g/kg respectively) Emile et al., 2008
Sheep

In the USA, grass pea hay compared to alfalfa hay as sole forage fed ad libitum to pregnant ewes (56 days before lambing) did not change body weight gain and body condition score (Poland et al., 2003).

Grass pea seeds

Digestibility and energy value

Rumen DM digestibility of grass pea seeds varied from 69 to 81% (Gonzalez et al., 2003Hanbury et al., 2000). The high DM digestibility values observed in the rumen studies are in agreement with in vitro (80-93%) and in vivo values (96%) (Hanbury et al., 2000). Metabolisable energy ranged from 11 to 14.4 MJ/kg DM in sheep and cattle, and are similar to those of peas and faba beans (Hanbury et al., 2000).

Calves

Grass pea seeds included at 30% in a calf starter concentrate, associated with groundnut oil meal, replaced fish meal when offered to young calves (live-weight gain 305 vs. 320 g/d, respectively). The trial lasted for 150 days and the calves also received whole milk (1.3 to 1.7 l/d on average) (Dhiman et al., 1983).

Grass pea hulls

In Ethiopia, it was suggested that grass pea hulls could be used as a protein supplement for sheep fed low nutritive value forage as they increased both NH3 and volatile fatty acids in the rumen (Mekasha et al., 2003).

Pigs 

Grass pea seeds have been tested in growing and finishing pig diets. Inclusion rates up to 20% appear relatively safe, provided that the diets have an adequate amino acid balance.

In Canada, starter pigs fed diets with up to 40% grass pea seeds and grower-finisher pigs fed up to 30% seeds from high ODAP (3 g/kg) lines had reduced daily weight gains, feed efficiency and intake. The increased concentration of ODAP reduced performance independently of the inclusion rate of grass pea in the diet within both classes of stock. However, other antinutritional factors may also have be involved in the reduced performance obtained at high inclusion rates (Castell et al., 1994).

In Poland, the inclusion of 10% raw seeds with no amino acid supplementation in the diets of growing and finishing pigs slightly decreased growth. The inclusion of 10% extruded seeds without amino acid supplementation did not significantly decrease growth, but 10% grass pea seeds included in an amino acid balanced diet gave better performance (growth and feed efficiency) than the control. Grass pea seeds did not influence carcass characteristics nor meat quality. There was a slight increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (C 18:2) content in the loin and ham fat with grass peas (Grela et al., 1999). In a later experiment, raw or extruded grass pea seeds partly or completely replaced soybean and rapeseed meal in pig diets with no effect on the content of total, saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids in fat (Winiarska-Mieczan, 2003). A diet containing raw grass pea seeds amounting to 50% of feed protein during the growing and finishing periods (15% and 10% grass pea seeds in the diets respectively) did not lower daily weight gain or slaughter parameters (Winiarska-Mieczan et al., 2010). In a comparison of diets containing raw or extrusion-cooked Lathyrus sativus seeds, substituting soybean and rapeseed meal partly (50% of protein, i.e. 15% and 10% in growing and finishing diets), or completely (100% of protein, i.e. 30% and 20% in growing and finishing diets), in diets with raw seeds as the only source of protein promoted an increase in the myristic acid level in the M. adductor and M. longissimus dorsi of the pigs. The use of diets containing raw or extruded grass pea seeds resulted in a decrease in the linoleic acid level in the adductor muscle. Processing had no effect on the saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels. The inclusion of grass pea seeds had no effect of the sensory characteristics of the adductor and longissimus dorsi muscles (Winiarska-Mieczan, 2010).

In Italy, the partial replacement of soybean meal and barley with 10 or 20% of Lathyrus sativus seeds in the diets of heavy pigs (78 kg) did not affect growth and slaughtering performance. The pigs which received 20% grass pea seeds produced the highest value ham and total lean cuts (Mattii et al., 2003).

Poultry 

Grass pea seeds are rich in protein and, therefore, a potential ingredient for feeding poultry. However, like other legume seeds, they are deficient in essential sulphur-containing amino acids, and contain antinutritional factors in variable concentrations (see Potential constraints above), which tends to limits their use. It is recommended to balance the diet either by using methionine-rich feed materials or by adding synthetic methionine (Low et al., 1990). The addition of methionine may alleviate the toxic effects of ODAP (Fikre et al., 2010).

In an early trial, the inclusion of raw Lathyrus sativus seeds depressed growth and feed efficiency even at low inclusion rates (10%). Supplementation with methionine did not improve the nutritive value of the diets, but the inclusion of tryptophan produced a positive response (Latif et al., 1975). In a later study, chicks fed diets based on 80% grass pea seeds had reduced performance. Supplementation with methionine and tryptophan improved performance but was not sufficient to overcome the effects of antinutritional factors (Low et al., 1990). Studies with diets balanced for amino acids and based on low ODAP lines of grass pea seeds have been more positive. Chicks fed on diets (balanced for methionine) including up to 40% of grass pea from lines containing low (1.3 g/kg) or medium (2.2 g/kg) concentrations of ODAP did not differ in weight gain or in fat and protein digestibilities compared to birds fed on a wheat-based diet. Higher inclusion rates (60-80%) or high-ODAP (2.7 g/kg) seeds reduced performance, though toxic effects were not observed (Rotter et al., 1991).

Adaptation to the antinutritional factors in chicks fed a 80% grass pea diet was observed in one study (Low et al., 1990), but pre-adaptation did not improve performance in a later experiment (Rotter et al., 1991). In a balanced diet containing 37% grass pea seeds, autoclaving or heating (micronisation) resulted in growth and feed efficiency equal to those obtained with a maize-soya diet (Latif et al., 1975). Dehulling did not improve performance (Rotter et al., 1991).

The use of grass pea seeds for laying hens has not been investigated (October 2014).

Rabbits 

Forage

Rabbits consumed green young grass pea plants in large amounts without ill effects (Amin et al., 2008; Muehlbauer et al., 1997). Grass pea seems to be a potential source of protein for rabbits. It can also be a source of fibre if the forage is not too young.

Seeds

Feeding rabbits with grass pea did not produce lathyrism symptoms (Enneking, 2011). This experiment confirmed earlier observations which reported rabbits to be particularly insusceptible to Lathyrus extracts hypodermically administrated (Stockman, 1931). Accordingly, grass pea seeds could be a source of protein and energy for rabbits; but it must be emphasised that no direct experiment on the optimum or maximum level of incorporation seems available in the international literature (January 2015). Whatever, the low level of sulphur-containing amino acids in grass pea proteins must be underlined: they only meet 60% of rabbit requirements (Lebas, 2004, personnal communication).

Horses and donkeys 

Horses are noted as being very susceptible to lathyrism with symptoms of paralysis of the hind limbs and, in some cases death, following heavy grazing or feeding on grass pea seeds (Hanbury et al., 2000). However, in a trial with young donkeys fed with Lathyrus sativus up to 50% and 80% for 6 months, no signs or symptoms of neurolathyrism or malnutrition were observed, body weights increased normally, and there were no differences from controls, though liver and kidney cells underwent pathological changes (Yan et al., 2006).

Fish 

Rohu (Labeo rohita)

For Labeo rohita fingerlings extruded Lathyrus sativus seeds were included at 26% in diets with no adverse effect on performance. No effect was also noted when the seeds were included up to 34% for two months. It is possible that ODAP activity was either inactivated or destroyed during extrusion or soaking while the feed was in water. Fish may also be more tolerant to ODAP than land animals (Barse et al., 2004). In a comparison of raw and extruded grass pea seeds, the latter were included at 40% in the diet, resulting in improved growth, feed utilization efficiency and apparent protein digestibility. Extrusion decreased significantly the content of tannins, trypsin inhibitors and ODAP (Ramachandran et al., 2004). In a similar experiment with grass pea seeds fermented with a Bacillus culture, the fermented seeds gave the best performance when included at 30% in the diet (Ramachandran et al., 2005).

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

There is a report of Lathyrus sativus seeds being used in common carp feeding in Turkey (Güzel et al., 1996).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 90.9 0.5 89.5 92.4 43  
Crude protein % DM 30.0 1.8 26.4 33.8 67  
Crude fibre % DM 6.4 1.2 4.6 8.5 21  
NDF % DM 20.1 6.6 16.0 27.7 3  
ADF % DM 7.1 1.6 4.7 9.3 7  
Lignin % DM 1.3 0.5 0.8 1.8 3  
Ether extract % DM 1.2 0.5 0.6 3.0 29  
Ash % DM 3.2 0.8 1.8 5.1 34  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 49.2 5.4 40.0 56.5 9  
Total sugars % DM 6.3 1.6 4.7 8.9 6  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.1 0.8 17.4 19.1 3 *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 0.8 0.4 0.1 1.8 26  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.9 1.0 0.5 4.1 26  
Potassium g/kg DM 10.3 2.0 6.4 12.2 7  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.3   0.2 0.4 2  
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.4 0.2 1.1 1.8 19  
Manganese mg/kg DM 134 37 15 181 17  
Zinc mg/kg DM 328 89 27 452 17  
Copper mg/kg DM 81 29 8 123 18  
Iron mg/kg DM 1183 1513 74 4690 20  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 3.8 0.6 3.2 4.5 4  
Arginine % protein 7.1 1.0 6.1 8.0 5  
Aspartic acid % protein 13.3 2.6 10.5 16.2 4  
Cystine % protein 1.4 0.2 1.2 1.6 6  
Glutamic acid % protein 16.0 1.7 13.4 17.5 5  
Glycine % protein 3.7 0.3 3.4 4.2 6  
Histidine % protein 2.8 0.4 2.5 3.5 5  
Isoleucine % protein 4.1 0.6 3.4 5.0 7  
Leucine % protein 6.4 0.4 5.8 6.9 6  
Lysine % protein 6.4 1.0 4.1 7.3 10  
Methionine % protein 0.8 0.2 0.6 1.1 8  
Phenylalanine % protein 3.8 0.6 3.0 4.5 6  
Proline % protein 3.8 0.6 3.1 4.4 4  
Serine % protein 4.7 0.3 4.4 5.1 4  
Threonine % protein 3.6 0.6 2.6 4.1 10  
Tyrosine % protein 2.3 0.6 1.4 2.9 5  
Valine % protein 4.6 0.7 3.9 5.9 7  
               
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 2.1 1.6 0.1 7.2 117  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 92.0         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 91.0         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 17.4         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.8         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 90.0       1  
a (N) % 57.0   52.0 62.0 2  
b (N) % 42.5   37.0 48.0 2  
c (N) h-1 0.155   0.140 0.170 2  
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 91   91 91 2 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 88   87 88 2 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Adsule et al., 1989; Aletor et al., 1994; Budag et al., 2009; Choudhury et al., 1973; Deshpande et al., 1992; Dhiman et al., 1983; Farhangi, 1996; Gonzalez et al., 2003; Grela et al., 1995; Infascelli et al., 1995; Kuo et al., 1995; Latif et al., 1975; Lisiewska et al., 2003; Low et al., 1990; Neumark, 1970; Ozkan et al., 2011; Ramachandran et al., 2004; Ronda Lain et al., 1963; Rotter et al., 1991; Shobhana et al., 1976; Urga et al., 2005; Vargas et al., 1965

Last updated on 23/10/2014 14:41:32

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 21.7 4.7 15.6 28.0 6  
Crude protein % DM 21.4 5.1 14.7 31.2 10  
Crude fibre % DM 25.8 5.1 20.0 30.4 4  
NDF % DM 38.2 10.7 23.2 53.5 6  
ADF % DM 27.1 5.2 18.8 34.8 6  
Ether extract % DM 2.9 0.5 2.4 3.4 3  
Ash % DM 10.5 2.3 7.4 14.2 8  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 9.3 3.4 6.7 15.6 8  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.2 0.5 2.1 3.7 8  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 69.4 2.5 68.3 73.2 3 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 66.4         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.3         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.7         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 77.7 3.9 74.0 82.6 4  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Alibes et al., 1990; Islam et al., 1995; Neumark, 1970

Last updated on 23/10/2014 14:21:19

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 91.4 4.8 87.4 98.3 4  
Crude protein % DM 19.1 2.3 17.5 22.5 4  
Crude fibre % DM 28.5   26.5 30.5 2  
NDF % DM 43.4 4.6 40.0 48.6 3  
ADF % DM 32.7 6.3 25.4 36.4 3  
Ether extract % DM 2.9   2.5 3.3 2  
Ash % DM 9.9 1.5 8.3 11.1 3  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.6         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 13.3       1  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.1       1  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 68.3   68.3 68.3 2  
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 64.7         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.0         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.5         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 71.7   68.3 75.0 2  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Alibes et al., 1990; Kiraz, 2011; Neumark, 1970; Poland et al., 2003

Last updated on 23/10/2014 14:28:43

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., Hassoun P., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2016. Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/285 Last updated on April 19, 2016, 15:36

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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