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Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia)

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Moth bean, mat bean, math, matki, moth, dew bean, dew gram, Indian moth bean, kidney bean, Turkish gram [English], haricot mat, haricot à feuille d'aconit, haricot papillon [French], motboon [Afrikaans, Dutch]mattenbohne [German]; bhringga, matki, mot, मोठ (moth) [Hindi]; madaki, madike, saabara hesara kaalu, thuruku hesaru, tutuku hesaru  [Kannada]; mat, math, matha, मटकी (matki) [Marathi]; payaru, tulkapayir  [Tamil]; kunkumapesalu, minumulu [Telugu]; لوبياء أقونيطية الأوراق [Arabic];鸟头叶豇豆 [Chinese]; モスビーン [Japanese]; Đậu bướm [Vietnamese]

Synonyms 

Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.

Related feed(s) 
Description 

Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) is an annual herbaceous trailing legume that has outstanding tolerance of dry conditions. Moth bean is an underutilized multipurpose legume that can provide both palatable and outstandingly drought-resistant, hot-season pasture and hay for livestock and seeds/pods for human consumption. Moth bean immature pods and seeds that are part of the indian diet. The immature pods can be boiled as a vegetable. At maturity, the seeds can be cooked or fried, they can also be ground and mixed with flour to make dhal and unleavened bread (Brink et al., 2006). The empty pods and the seed teguments removed during the preparation of dhal can be fed to animals. Moth bean can also be grown for green manure and as a cover crop. It is useful in mixtures with lablab, pigeon pea and Sudan grass. Seeds are used medicinally in diets to treat fevers; roots are said to be narcotic (Brink et al., 2006).

Moth bean has a prostrate creeping habit. The main stem is slender, erect, up to 40 cm in height. Up to 12 trailing primary prostrate branches, 60-150 cm long are produced from the main stem. The leaves are alternate, petiolated, compound, 3-foliolate. The leaflets are 5-12 cm in length, deeply lobed. The inflorescence is an axillary, dense false raceme borne on a 5-10 cm long peduncle. The flowers are bright yellow in colour, bisexual and typically papilionaceous. The standard is up to 8 mm long and the wings 6 mm long. The fruit is a hairy, brown or pale grey cylindrical pod, 2.5-5 cm long x 0.5 cm broad. It contains 4-9-(10) rectangular to cylindrical seeds (3-5 mm x 1.5-2.5 mm). The seeds are whitish green, yellow to brown in colour, often mottled. The 1000-seed weight is 10–35 g (NARO, 2020; Brink et al., 2006; Adsule, 1997).

They are palatable and are relished by livestock.

Distribution 

Moth bean is native to India, Pakistan and Myanmar. It is particularly common in semi-arid to arid regions, especially in the north-western desert region of the South Asia and adjacent regions (Jain et al., 1980). It is widely cultivated in India (1.5 million ha in 2016), Sri Lanka, China, Pakistan , in the south-western states of the USA (Texas and Califormnia), and in the Canada (Kochhar, 2016; Munro et al., 1998).

Moth bean is grown from sea-level up to an altitude of 1300 m and it does outstandingly well in arid and hot regions (NARO, 2020; Kochhar, 2016; Brink et al., 2006). It is the most drought-resistant pulse crop of India. It does better in places where average temperature are 24–32°C, but it withstands daytime temperatures up to 45°C. Moth bean thrives with a well-distributed annual rainfall of 500–750 mm, but keeps growing successfully in areas with as low as 200–300 mm annual rainfall. Even with as little as 50–60 mm in 3–4 showers during the growing period, some yield can be obtained (Brink et al., 2006). it thrives and keep being green and succulent even at the end of the hot season, when other crops have succumbed to the heat, even after the seeds and pods are ripe – until the arrival of cold weather (Sherasia et al., 2017).

Moth bean can grow on a variety of soils, however, it is particularly suitable for dry light sandy soils and does not tolerate waterlogging. It is somewhat salt tolerant and can grow on a wide pH range (3.5–10) (Brink et al., 2006).

Forage management 

Although it is an annual of only five months' duration, it can serve as a pasture legume as it reseeds itself if allowed to become well established before being grazed.

Yields

Seed yields

Worldwide, average seed yields are only 70–270 kg/ha (Brink et al., 2006). However, in Australia and the USA, experimantal seeds yields could be up to 2600 kg/ha (Brink et al., 2006). In Canada, yields were reported to range between 237 and 921 kg/ha and, in India it was from 450 to 766 kg/ha depending on variety and P supply (Meena et al., 2010; Munro et al., 1998).

Forage yield

Yield of green matter for forage could be 37–50 t/ha and yield of hay was reported to be 7.5–10 t/ha (Brink et al., 2006).

Cultivation

Seeds of moth bean should be sown on a well-prepared seedbed towards the end of the rainy season, on residual moisture. The seeds can be broadcasted at a rate of 10-20 kg/ha when the crop is intended for seed production or at 7-34 kg/ha when it is grown for forage. The seeds can also be sown at 2.5-4 cm depth in rows (30-90 cm apart) at 2-5 kg/ha in pure stands. When grown as a rainfed crop in arid regions best results were obtained in India by planting equal amounts of early and late types in alternate rows. While weeding is important until a full canopy has developed, the application of fertilizer or irrigation is rare (Brink et al., 2006).

Moth bean can be grown as a sole crop or intercropped with pearl millet, sorghum or other cereals, occasionally with pulses. It is also grown as a green manure in rotation with cotton. Moth bean is sensitive to several viruses, fungi and nematodes. It can also be invaded by Striga spp. (Brink et al., 2006).

Harvest

Because of their prostrate habit, moth bean plants are difficult to harvest with a mower and are mainly cut with a sickle, left to dry for one week, then threshed and winnowed (Brink et al., 2006).

Storage

The seeds are prone to Bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.) attacks during storage (Brink et al., 2006).

Environmental impact 

Moth bean is used as a cover crop to prevent soil erosion (Munro et al., 1998)

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Seeds

Moth bean seeds contain a significant amount of non-protein nitrogen. Globulin is the major protein fraction. Methionine is the first limiting amino acid and tryptophan the second limiting essential amino acid in the seeds (Adsule, 1997). The vitamin levels in seeds are relatively lower than those in soybean (Gopalan et al., 1982 cited by Adsule, 1997).

Potential constraints 

As many other grain legumes, moth bean seeds contain antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors,polyphenols, phytic acid, saponins, oxalic acid and amylase inhibitor.  Autoclaving of moth bean meal for 10 min (120°C at 15 psi pressure) was reported to completely destroy the trypsin inhibitor activity (Kadam et al., 1986). Cooking also significantly reduces tannins and haemagglutinins in the seed. The proportion of phytate phosphorus is decreased significantly after germination and cooking (Borhade et al., 1984 cited by Adsule, 1997)

Ruminants 

Moth bean hay

Moth bean hay is readily eaten by livestock and has a feeding value almost equal to that of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay. The stems are small and the leaves do not easily fall off when the plant is dried (Sherasia et al., 2017).

Pigs 

No information could be found (as of 2020).

Poultry 

No information could be found (as of 2020).

Rabbits 

No information seems available in the international literature (June 2020) on the utilisation in rabbit feeding of moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia), whole plant or seeds. However seeds and pods are traditionally used in human nutrition and the whole plant (as green forage or hay) is used in Indian Sub-continent to feed livestock (Saravanan et al., 2015). Thus like other plants of the Vigna genus, moth bean can be considered as a potential feed source for rabbits. The whole plant is a forage rich on proteins (15-16% in DM).

Seeds, like other beans of the family could also be used when they are discarded from human consumption. The presence of so-called antinutritional compounds such as phytic acid, saponin or trypsin inhibitor are of low incidence in rabbit feeding (Khokhar et al., 1986).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 15.5 1
Crude fibre % DM 19.7 1
Ether extract % DM 1.9 1
Ash % DM 12.6 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 23.7 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 5.4 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 75.6 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 72.3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.5 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Patel, 1966

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:33

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 9.6 1
Crude fibre % DM 19.4 1
Ether extract % DM 2.9 1
Ash % DM 14.1 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 30.1 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.4 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 59.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Patel, 1966

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:34

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 86.2 1
Crude protein % DM 12.2 4.4 8.9 17.2 3
Crude fibre % DM 28.4 1.4 26.8 29.4 3
Ether extract % DM 1.8 0.1 1.7 1.9 3
Ash % DM 13.4 1.2 12.0 14.4 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 21.5 19.6 23.4 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.5 1.2 1.8 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 62.1 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 58.6 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 67.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Fraps, 1916; Patnayak et al., 1979; Sen, 1938

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:34

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 9.6 1
Crude fibre % DM 19.4 1
Ether extract % DM 2.9 1
Ash % DM 14.4 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.6 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 20.1 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.5 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 87.9 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 59.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Sen, 1938

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:34

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 26.6 1
Crude fibre % DM 5.3 1
Ether extract % DM 0.6 1
Ash % DM 5.6 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.5 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.8 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 92.3 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 81.8 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Sen, 1938

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:34

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/237 Last updated on June 19, 2020, 16:33