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Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus)

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Gamba grass, bluestem (Africa, Australia), Rhodesian andropogon (southern Africa), Rhodesian blue grass (Zimbabwe), onaga grass, tambuki grass (north-west Africa), bluestem (USA) [English]; barbon [French]; Gambagras [German]; capim andropógon [Portuguese (Brazil)]; andropogon, gambia, pasto gamba, rabo de zorro [Spanish]; grootbaardgras, Rhodesiese andropogon, hohes bartgras [Afrikaans]; kota-kota, sola, tete-ialikota [Angola]; sméné [Arabic]; koumbossou, irouwa [Benin]; wa [Gambia]; purim pieklega, purim pielega [Ghana]; dagué, guelori, kiené, mussa waga, nguon, uaga, waba, waga, wako, zara [Mali]; ahamdoroem, ajeghar, dakhié, djabar, gamba, lali, radyaré, ranièré, soobre, subna, subu nya, teebeened, yayere, yawiri, yawur [Niger]; bùgànà, dadeppure, ekpo, erè, eruwà, gábàà, , gámbà, girman darr daya, igomough, iikube, ikpo, ikpo agu, jimfi, kalawal, madlbak, palawal, sefunkwe, sugu, sugu kal, suwu, suwu bul, suwu kal, waawan ruwa, welho [Nigeria]; badoba, cicca, dagué, ebuk, etiub, gandany, ginyidi, guelori, hat, khat, kiené, makas, mediidi, mussa waga, o nduy, okas, soya, uaga, vaba, waga, waga gué, yev, yew, zara [Senegal]; kabusa, puile [Sierra Leone]; danye, dayye, kagarire, kessé, lanyere, mofogo, mokiri, mopaka, mopoko, pita, ranyere, soporé [Burkina Faso]; aruwa ako funfun, eruwa, eruwa ako, eruwa funfun [Yoruba]; Bagbé, Gbagbé, Saa, Gbaga (Siguiri), Kondolo (Kissidougou) [Malinké]; Béedèn [Kissi]; Dioban, Ndioban [Poular]; Yobanyi, Djobanyi, Séké [Soussou]; Yalipopo [Guerzé] ; hung th'ao [Vietnamese](Quattrocchi, 2006; Cook et al., 2020; Carrière, 2000).

Synonyms 

Andropogon bisquamulatus Hochst., Andropogon gayanus var. squamulatus Stapf, Andropogon squamulatus Hochst.

Description 

Gamba grass is one of the most productive, drought and fire resistant grass of tropical Africa. It is a perennial leafy species that forms dense stands and can be used for pastures, hay and cut-and-carry systems. It is relished by livestock at early stages (before heading) and then loses its nutritional value. It can be used for thatching and mats. It has repellent effect on ticks. Gamba grass is considered a noxious weed in some places like Australia and Venezuela (Csurhes et al., 1998).

Morphology

Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) is a tall tufted perennial grass that can reach 2.5 m in height. The culms are numerous (up to 450/plant), erect, branched above, glaucous, 1.5 to 2.5 m in height. The leaf-blades are linear, variable, up to 60 cm long x 4 - 20 mm wide, often narrowed at the base and sometimes falsely petiolate, commonly with an external ligule (a membranous rim at junction between sheath and blade). The inflorescence is a large, leafy false panicle made of 4-10 cm long, paired racemes. The spikelets are sessile, 5–8 mm in length (Kew Science, 2021).

Uses

Gamba grass is mainly used as a productive forage that can be grazed or cut to be offered to livestock as fresh forage or as hay or silage. Its coarse culms can be used for thatchinfg and matting. The anti-tick effect of Andropogon gayanus grass against Boophilus microplus has been demonstrated experimentally in Mexico by infesting fields with Boophilus microplus larvae over several years (Fernandez-Ruvalcaba et al., 2004).

Distribution 

Gamb grass is native to the tropical and sub-tropical savannas of Africa that have extended dry seasons (from Senegal on the west coast to Sudan in the east and south to Mozambique, Botswana and South Africa). Gamba grass is one of the high-yielding grasses of West Africa. It was introduced elsewhere in the Tropics and became naturalized in Australia and South America (DAF, 2020).

Gamba grass is a warm season growing grass with excellent drought tolerance. It is found at the edge of foodplains, moist bottomland, grasslands, wooded savannahs, deciduous bushland, and in fallow land and along roadsides (Quattrocchi, 2006).

Gamba grass grows on a variety of soils (sandy clays, sandy loams to loamy sands, sands to black cracking clays) in areas situated below an altitude of 980 m and where annual rainfall is ranging from 400 to 1500 mm  with a marked 5-6- (9) month dry season. Gamba grass tolerates low fertility, but no waterlogging. It does well in the lowlands,seasonal swamps with a good drainage that can be flooded during the rainy season with water level reaching up to 2 m aboveground (Ahmed, 1990). In its native habitat, it occurs in areas where average minimum temperature does not drop below 4.4° C. However, it is known to tolerate frost (Cook et al., 2020).

Gamba grass is tolerant of soils containing free Al or Mg or over-grazing (DAF, 2020; Cook et al., 2020; Dieng et al., 1997).

Forage management 

Gamba grass easily establishes, produces high biomass and is tolerant of long dry seasons and acidic soils (Oliveira et al., 2019; Luck et al., 2019). Gamba grass can be cultivated alone, and cultivated without added N. It could produce twice as much dry matter as Urochloa decumbens or Megathyrsus maximus (Cook et al., 2020). Gamba grass also does well with twining and erect shrub legumes like Centrosema molle, Neustanthus phaseoloides and Stylosanthes spp., Grona heterocarpa subsp. ovalifolia, G. heterocarpa subsp. heterocarpa, Arachis pintoi, Centrosema acutifolium and C. brasilianum., but may need heavy defoliation to reduce competitiveness (Cook et al., 2020). The protein content of a stand is higher when gamba grass is grown in mixture with legumes (Ahmed, 1990).

Gamba grass can be propagated by seeds (1-10 kg/ha) provided the seeds are more than 6 month-old, or by young rooted tillers. The seeds can be sown through a drum seeder or out of a fertilizer spinner mixed with fertilizer  in a prepared or semi-prepared seedbed, at 1 to 2.5 cm depth (Abdena, 2013; Cook et al., 2020). Seeds may be of low quality, resulting in poor seedling vigour and unreliable establishment so young rooted tillers may also be used (Abdena, 2013). Once established, the young plant should be cut at 15-20 cm to allow tillering. During the first year after establishment, the yield remains low (2-2.5 ton DM/ha) but it increases significantly on year 2 and can reach (4-) 6 to 11 (-25) tonnes DM/ha over 3 or 2 cuts (Abdena, 2013; Dieng et al., 1997).

Under favourable soil fertility and rainfall, gamba grass productivity would be up to 30 t DM/ha.  In Brazil, it was reported to outyield species of Urochloa (formerly named Brachiaria).  In Northern Territory (Australia,) which is known for its extensive dry season period (7-8 month), annual yields of 4‒9 t/ha (up to 20 t/ha) were recorded for gamba grass (Cook et al., 2020).

Gamba grass should always be cut before heading as its nutritive value dramatically decreases with heading. When the harvest is done in only 2 cuts, the forage has medium-low nutritive value; it is then cut for hay. Gamba grass responds well to N fertilizer and when the harvest is done in 3 cuts, it provides higher quality forage and higher biomass (11 tons). Under this kind of management gamba grass is mainly cut for silage (Dieng et al., 1997).

Environmental impact 

Invasiveness and soil and water depletion

It is considered a noxious weed in Australia and Venzuela where it smothers native grasses (Smith, 1995 cited by Csurhes et al., 1998).Gamba grass infestations have spread extensively across various landscapes where it has significantly altered soil-nutrient cycles and water cycles as it requires more nutrients and water than native grasses (DAF, 2020)

Fire risk

Dense stands of ungrazed, dry gamba grass constitute fuel reserves that can yield intense fires in the late dry season in Australia and damage native plant communities (Csurhes et al., 1998). Gamba tussocks recover well after fire, thus suppressing native species (Cook et al., 2020)

Soil reclamation

Gamba grass has been used for reclaiming overgrazed and eroded land (Quattrocchi, 2006).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Crude protein is 7–10% in young growth (on moderately fertile soils) declining to as low as 1.5% at maturity (Abdena, 2013).

Crude protein varies from 3.8 to 6.5% DM, crude fibre from 30—36%DM and the protein content is higher when gamba grass is grown in mixture with legumes (Ahmed, 1990) .

Potential constraints 

Saponins

Unlike Brachiaria species with which it has been sometimes compared, gamba grass does not contain high amount (1 to 1.5 g/kg DM vs. 3.3 to 12.2 g/kg) of detrimental saponins (protodioscin)  responsible for the death of sheep (Gracindo et al., 2014).

Ruminants 

Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) is relished by all classes of livestock (cattle, sheep and goats). Gamba grass is mainly grazed in permanent pastures: it is palatable when young and is used for continuous and rotational grazing (Cook et al., 2020). It can also be used for cut-and carry systems or made into hay. 

Composition

As a drought resistant forage grass, it is known to have medium nutritional value (Miles, 1980). Gamba grass nutritional value is moderate in young growth. When the plant reaches maturity, it coarsens and nutritional value declines after flowering (Cook et al., 2020).   Gamba grass is extremely deficient in Ca, P, Mg, and Na concentrations for grazing ruminants (Morillo et al., 1997). Only average K content was considered adequate. There is thus a need for mineral supplementation to prevent deficiencies in ruminants fed on gamba grass forage as a sole source of feed.

Palatability

In Africa, gamba grass is recognized as being a productive and highly palatable when green at vegetative stage (Ibrahim, 2012). Young leaf of gamba grass is palatable, readily eaten and accepted by cattle throughout the year under moderate grazing pressures (Bewabi et al., 2018). However nutritive value declines rapidly with age and decreasing leaf/stem ratio (Phengsavanh et al., 2003). With maturity, gamba grass produces numerous hard and unpalatable flowering stems. Burning or mowing them could improve the palatability of gamba grass pastures for grazing animals (Aina et al., 2020).

In Ghana, grazing intensity was assessed among a variety of pasture grasses like gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus), Paspalum scrobiculatum, Panicum maximum, Setaria sphacelata, Digitaria decumbens and Sporobolus pyramidalis, Vetivaria fulvibarbis, Brachiaria lata, Cenchrus ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Axonopus compressus, and Heteropogon contortus. Gamba grass was reported to be the preferred species (Tetteh, 1974 ).

In Benin, gamba grass belonged to the top 16 grasses cited or reffered to for their fodder value by livestock farmers during pasture walks. It was also among the most common species used as fodder with Megathyrsus maximus, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Fluegga virosa (Ouachinou et al., 2018)

Degradability, digestibility

Pasture

IVDMD could be up to 63% during the wet season but drops to 30‒40% at the end of the dry season (Cook et al., 2020).

In Venezuela, an experiment assessed in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of gamba grass and reported that the only factors influencing IVOMD were the frequency of defoliation and rainfall (Caraballo et al., 1997). The average IVOMD decreased from 54.2 to 51.7% with increasing harvest interval from 63 to 84 days, respectively. Digestibility was a function of rainfall. Thus, the highest IVOMD (56.5%) were found at 63 days of age with high rainfall. These results confirm that gamba grass has moderate nutritional value in terms of digestibility. More frequent harvesting could help to improve gamba grass forage quality even though this might reduce DM yield. N and P fertilizers had no effect on IVOMD.

African basil (Ocimum gratissimum) could be used to reduce quadratically methane emissions arising from the ruminal fermentation of gamba grass by reducing overall digestibility of the forage (Kouazounde et al., 2015).

Hay

Apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), fibre fractions (CF), energy (E) of gamba grass hay at three different stages (56, 84 and 112 days of growth) were assessed (Cavalcanti et al., 2016). The highest digestibilities were obtained at the earliest stage (56 days) with  61.87%, 55.69%, 59.17% and 62.5% respectively for DM, CP, CF and E (Cavalcanti et al., 2016). Similar results were obtained with gamba grass hay harvested between 56 and 84 days and had higher in vitro dry matter degradability and nutritional value (Moreira et al., 2013).

Silage

A study conducted in Brazil showed  that gamba grass produced higher quality silage (higher lactate and lower pH and butyrate content) after 112 days of regrowth. As for hay, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of gamba grass silage was the best at 56 days of age (57.28% of DM).

Ensiling can be useful to preserve gamba grass from the reduction of quality during the dry season of tropical savannahs. Gamba grass silage, harvested at three stages of maturity (56, 84 and 112 days) from an established pasture was used to evaluate the in situ rumen degradability with cannulated cattle (Ribeiro et al., 2014a). Gamba grass ensiled at 56 days of regrowth had higher nutritional value. Gamba grass ensiled at 84 d of regrowth had highest slowly degradable DM fraction and lowest DM effective degradability. The DM effective degradability decreased with grass maturity because of the increasing stem/leaf ratio and reduction of stem nutritional quality (Ribeiro et al., 2014a)

Cattle

Gamba grass was reported as one of the most common species used as fodder for grazing cattle in Benin (Ouachinou et al., 2018).

Supplementation of gamba grass with legumes help to increase the ruminant production from 90-120 to 150 kg live weight gain/head/yr.

Pasture

Cattle grazing on a low fertiliser-input and well managed gamba grass dominated pasture (70–75%) with 727 g/kg NDF and 87 g/kg CP during the rainy season and 737 g/kg and 89 g/kg CP over the dry season, was studied (Ramirez-Restrepo et al., 2019). DM intake of the grazing cattle was 2.33±0.13 % of total LW. The performance of cattle of different ages grazing gamba grass dominated pasture was close to that obtained on pasture of Stylosanthes capitata. Steers gained up to 24% more weight than did cull cows when grazing the gamba grass dominated pasture, but cull cows emitted significantly less CH 4 than did old steers (129 vs 141 g/day) on this gamba grass pasture. Live weight gain could be improved when cattle grazed gamba grass in combination with legumes (Ramirez-Restrepo et al., 2019).

Hay

Gamba grass hay was offered to White Fulani heifers at three levels of feeding during the wet season and the dry season (regrowth) (Zemmelink et al., 1972). The hay DM intake varied from 47.7 to 68.3 g/kg LW0.75. This study suggests that the effect of level of feeding on hay intake was largely independent of the selection for CP and shows that the animals prefer leaves against stems (Zemmelink et al., 1972)???.

Male zebu calves (Wadara) (99.2 kg BW) fed on a gamba grass hay basal diet and concentrate had a daily feed intake of 3.1 kg and daily weight gain of 152.9 g. It was shown that the supplementation of the gamba grass basal diet with a protein source like pods of Acacia sieberiana had a slight positive effect on feed intake and  daily weight gain. Adding A. sieberiana to gamba grass hay reduced feeding costs significantly (Ibeawuchi et al., 1998).

Sheep

Pasture

Daily idleness of sheep on different pastures was assessed and showed the highest values were on gamba grass pasture (12.06 hours) which suggested that sheep had lower acceptability and grazing activity on gamba grass pasture (de Sousa et al., 2016). The average daily gain (ADG) of sheep on gamba grass pasture (55g LWG/d) was much lower than on Brachiaria spp. (116 g LW/d) and Panicum maximum (111.6 g LW/d) (Gracindo et al., 2014). This suggested that gamba grass is less adequate for sheep than Brachiaria spp. and Panicum maximum pastures (Gracindo et al., 2014).

Hay

Five tropical forage hays including gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) were  fed to Djallonke sheep so as to measure dry matter (DM) voluntary intake  and oragnic matter (OM) digestibility (Kaboré-Zoungrana et al., 1999). DM voluntary intake of gamba grass hay ranged from 68 to 26 g/kg BW 0.75 , OM digestibility ranged from 31% to 56%  both parameters depending on the phenological stage. Both parameters had lower values than those obtained for Panicum anabaptistum, Pennisetum pedicellatum, Brachiaria lata and Andropogon pseudapricus hays  (Kaboré-Zoungrana et al., 1999).

In Northern Nigeria, Gamba grass hay remains available when other feeds are scarce and it could be fed to Yakasa rams (18 kg BW). Moreover, gamba grass hay could be profitably supplemented with groundnut haulms, a crop residue also available in times of scarcity. Together, gamba grass hay and groundnut haulms could improve the dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, nitrogen utilization and enhanced growth rates of rams (Mbahi et al., 2016). 

Silage

Gamba grass silages made at different ages of regrowth (56, 84 and 112 d) were used to evaluate intake, digestibility and methane emission from sheep (Ribeiro et al., 2015a). Gamba grass silage daily DM intake ranged from 51.8 to 57.0 g/ kg metabolic weight and was not influenced by silage age of regrowth, but apparent DM digestibility linearly decreased from 52.6% to 38.0% with increasing age of regrowth. These results suggest that gamba grass should be ensiled at early age of regrowth (56 d) for better digestive efficiency and silage quality. The age of regrowth did not influence methane emissions. The moderate nutritional value of these silages suggests that protein supplementation would be required to improve animal productivity (Ribeiro et al., 2015a).

Goats

Pasture

Grazing goats were observed in three cropping systems consisting in a monoculture of gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) and two intercropping systems of gamba grass + legumes (de Moura et al., 2020). Gamba grass monoculture had the lowest crude protein (CP) and digestibility, the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content and the longest goats grazing time. The grazing goats daily intake in the monoculture of A. gayanus is 2.7% live weight in DM with an average daily weight gain of 85 g/d. The intake is lower than the value the goats in the mixtures, while the average daily gain did not differ between the cropping systems (de Moura et al., 2020).

Hay

Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) hay was used to evaluate the effects of four treatments (hay + water, hay + NaOH solution, hay + two native alkali salts from Nigeria) on digestibility with goats (Ibeawuchi et al., 1991). Alkali treatment increased the significantly the goats daily DM intake and improved DM, CP and CF digestibilities. The daily DM intake of goats on gamba grass was 19.43 g/kg metabolic weight (Ibeawuchi et al., 1991).

Rabbits 

Gamba grass is used as forage in traditional rabbit feeding in different tropical countries such as Burkina Faso, Nigeria, or Laos (Sana et al., 2020; Onodugo et al., 2020; Ekwe et al., 2011; Hongthong Phimmasan et al., 2005). In a cafeteria test with 4 other green forages (Centrosema pubescens, banana leaves, oil palm leaves and Calopogonium mucunoides) fresh leaves from 8-weeks early dry season regrowth of gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus), were accepted but were the less palatable of the different forages (Osakwe et al., 2007)

In a study on 3 sources of proteins, gamba hay was used with success as only additional source of fibre. Distributed in fixed quantity (75g/day and /head) daily gamba hay intake represented from 41 to 50% of the total daily intake during the growth period preceding reproduction (Aganga et al., 1991).

Introduced in a balanced diet, gamba grass may represent up to 15% of the diet (not tested at a higher level) without adverse effect on haematological, biochemical profile or carcass characteristics of the rabbits in 8 weeks study on broiler rabbits; growth rate was the best with the higher level of gamba grass (Ibrahim et al., 2018).

In a cafeteria test, gamba silage harvested at soft dough stage, fortified or not with different legumes forage so as to increase the protein content of the mixture (from 6.2 up to 8.1% DM), was slightly but significantly preferred without addition of any other forage; but unfortunately no result of performance is available in this study (Muhammad et al., 2009). From general point of view, silage utilisation in rabbit feeding could be a source of problems if the total daily utilisation in the farm (for rabbits and ruminants if any) is not large enough to maintain day after day the quality of the silo content after opening.

According to the average chemical composition, the calculated) digestible energy content of fresh gamba grass is about 6 MJ/kg DM varying from 7 MJ/kg for an early fresh forage down to 5.4 MJ/kg for the hay (Lebas, 2016). The estimated value of DE is about 6 MJ/kg DM for the silage. Calculated digestibility of proteins is low and variable from 25 to 40% (Lebas, 2016).

 

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 27.8 1
Crude protein % DM 6.5 1
Crude fibre % DM 29.6 1
NDF % DM 65.1 *
ADF % DM 34.9 *
Lignin % DM 4.3 *
Ether extract % DM 3.1 1
Ash % DM 9.9 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.9 *
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 66.1 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 63.2 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 52.3 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Blair Ralns, 1963

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:13

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 30.0 7.1 19.1 49.0 270
Crude protein % DM 7.8 2.6 3.0 13.7 307
Crude fibre % DM 36.8 3.6 29.2 44.6 288
NDF % DM 71.9 10.4 43.5 83.6 19 *
ADF % DM 42.9 7.3 29.2 52.0 18 *
Lignin % DM 6.0 2.2 2.3 9.3 18 *
Ether extract % DM 1.7 0.4 1.0 2.7 276
Ash % DM 8.3 1.9 5.2 13.1 306
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.2 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.8 0.8 2.3 5.5 292
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.6 0.5 0.7 2.9 296
Potassium g/kg DM 16.4 4.5 8.4 24.9 182
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 17
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.1 0.5 1.1 3.3 174
Manganese mg/kg DM 196 66 82 339 87
Zinc mg/kg DM 25 5 15 34 87
Copper mg/kg DM 5 2 3 9 87
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 60.0 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 57.4 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.5 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.4 *
ME ruminants (gas production) MJ/kg DM 6.3 0.2 6.0 6.4 3

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abaunza et al., 1991; Bartha, 1970; CIRAD, 1991; Evitayani et al., 2004; Evitayani et al., 2004; González-García et al., 2008; Odedire et al., 2008; Pozy et al., 1996; Rodrigues et al., 2004; Sen et al., 1965; Vanthong Phengvichith et al., 2007

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:13

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 27.5 1
Crude protein % DM 4.1 1
Crude fibre % DM 30.3 1
NDF % DM 65.8 *
ADF % DM 35.7 *
Lignin % DM 4.4 *
Ether extract % DM 0.6 1
Ash % DM 8.3 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.5 *
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 64.7 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 61.8 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.8 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 41.5 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Blair Ralns, 1963

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:13

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 90.0 5.4 82.4 96.4 7
Crude protein % DM 3.8 2.8 1.1 9.1 7
Crude fibre % DM 41.5 4.0 35.1 47.1 7
NDF % DM 76.3 76.3 85.0 2 *
ADF % DM 48.0 48.0 55.6 2 *
Lignin % DM 7.1 7.1 11.0 2 *
Ether extract % DM 1.1 0.5 0.5 1.7 6
Ash % DM 6.3 2.2 3.9 8.9 7
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.8 1.6 1.6 6.3 6
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.4 1.1 0.4 3.5 6
Potassium g/kg DM 12.4 5.8 9.0 21.0 4
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.6 0.3 1.4 1.9 4
Manganese mg/kg DM 180 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 18 1
Copper mg/kg DM 3 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 51.0 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 47.7 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.8 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 11.5 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Blair Ralns, 1963; CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:14

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 25.0 1
Crude protein % DM 5.8 1
Crude fibre % DM 37.4 1
NDF % DM 72.4 *
ADF % DM 43.5 *
Lignin % DM 6.1 *
Ether extract % DM 1.9 1
Ash % DM 7.4 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.4 *
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 57.3 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 53.1 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.7 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 20.7 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Blair Ralns, 1963

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:14

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/510 Last updated on July 28, 2021, 18:20