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Feedipedia

Castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds, oil meal and by-products

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

Castor plant, castor bean, castor oil plant, castor-oil plant, palma christi [English]; wonderboom [Dutch]; Wunderbaum [German]; ricin, grande épurge; ricin commun [French]; Ρίκινος [Greek]; mamona, mamoneira, mamoeiro, carrapateira, carrapato, ricino [Portuguese]; hierba mora, higuera del diablo, ricino, ricino comun, tartago [Spanish]; Hint yağı bitkisi [Turkish]; קיקיון מצוי [Hebrew]; خرّوب [Arabic]; کرچک [Farsi]; kasterolieboom [Afrikans]; ጉሎ[Amaric]; Zirman [Hausa]; अरंडी [Hindi]; jarak (tumbuhan) [Indonesian]; ആവണക്ക് [Malayalam]; Pokok jarak [Malaysian]; Lansina [Tagalog]; 英语 [Chinese]; トウゴマ[Japanese]; 피마자 [Korean]; Thầu dầu [Vietnamese]

Description 

Castor plants are mainly grown for their oil seeds that yield a very valuable industrial oil with many applications as lubricant, hydraulic and brake fluids, paints, coatings, inks, cold resistant plastics, waxes and polishes, nylon, pharmaceuticals, emollients and perfumes. It was also used for lighting though the smell was unpleasant. Apart from its industrial uses, the oil is also used in medicine as a purge or to treat sores. Is is also considered an energy crop as it can be used to produce biodiesel (Razzazi et al., 2015). The castor plant was used by the Wakefield Oil Company to produce the famous automotive lubricant named "Castrol", a contraction for castor oil (Modzelevich, 2020). 

Castor seeds, also incorrectly called castor beans, are contained in a spiny outer husk. Once the seeds have been removed from the husks by drying or with dehulling machinery, the oil extraction can be done. During this operation, one tonne of castor seed yields an amount of 300-500 kg oil and 500-700 kg castor oilcake. The castor oilmeal is often called castor pomace. The extracted meal contains about 1% residual oil. Screw-pressed cake has about 6-8% residual oil and double-pressed cake 5-7%.

Distribution 

The origin of castor (Ricinus communis) plant is debated because of its wide distribution since ancient times, and the ease and rapidity of its establishment as a native plant. Countries of the North-East Africa like Ethiopia and Egypt could have been the center of origin of castor plant. It was already grown for its oil in Egypt some 6000 years ago and spread through the Mediterranean, the Middle East and India at an early date. Castor plant was also cited in the Bible (Book of Jonah 4: 6-7: "And the LORD God prepared a plant and made it come up over Jonah, that it might be shade for his head to deliver him from his misery. So Jonah was very grateful for the plant. But as morning dawned the next day God prepared a worm, and it so damaged the plant that it withered" (Modzelevich, 2020).

Castor (Ricinus communis) plant is indigenous to north-eastern tropical Africa, especially the Ethiopian areas below 2400 m altitude (Seegeler, 1983). It could have spread to South-Africa as far back as the Stone Age. Castor plant naturally occurs across the African continent, from the Atlantic coast to the Red sea and from Tunisia to South Africa and in the Indian Ocean islands. It is found in tropical and warm temperate regions throughout the world. It was introduced to Florida during the 18thcentury and was naturalized in Hawaii not later than 1819. It is becoming an abundant weed in Florida, California and Hawaii in the United States (Rojas-Sandoval et al., 2014).

Major castor oil-producing countries are India, Brazil, and China: by 2008, they supplied 93% of the world’s castor oil. In 2019, India was the first producer. There, castor oilseed production was over 2 million tons, followed by Brazil with only 31 000 tons and China 27 000 tons (Statista, 2020). The worlwide demand for castor oil has raised from 400,000 tons in 1985 to 610,000 tons in 2010 (an increase of more than 50% in 25 years)(Patel et al., 2016). It has reached 813 200 tons in 2018 and was expected to grow at 4.1% annual growth rate (CAGR) between 2019 and 2025 (GVR, 2020).

Processes 

Castor oil extraction

The oil content of castor seeds is high (30-50%) and it can be mechanically or chemically extracted. Prior to extraction, it is necessary to dehull and dry the seeds and also to clean them (remove stones, sand, branches, husks wastes and other impurities). After cleaning/screening operations, the seeds are heated thanks to steam-jacketed press to harden the kernel and then dried prior to extraction. The extraction is done throug a screw or hydraulic press. Pressing can be done at low or high temperature but has subsequently different levels of oil recovery. Low temperature pressing results in 45% recovery of oil while higher temperatures allow up to 80% recovery of oil (Patel et al., 2016).

If only screw pressing in done, the by-product obtained is castor oilcake, if the screw pressing process is followed by solvent extraction, the by-product is castor oilmeal (Patel et al., 2016). Either cake or meal from castro seeds are toxic because the ricin present in the endosperm remains (and is concentrated) in the by-products.

Detoxication processes

Treatments Initial level of ricin % of ricin reduction References
Physical treatments      
Steaming: 30 or 60 min 388 mg/kg   Anandan et al., 2005
Boiling: 30 or 60 min 388 mg/kg   Anandan et al., 2005
Autoclaving: 1 atm., 30 min or 1 atm., 60 min 388 mg/kg 100 % Anandan et al., 2005
Heating: 100°C, 30 min or 120°C, 25 min 388 mg/kg   Anandan et al., 2005
Chemical treatments for 1 kg of castor oilcake      
Soaking in 10 l water during 3, 6, or 12 h 388 mg/kg 65, 86, and 84% Anandan et al., 2005
Ammonia :7.5 ml or 12.5 ml  388 mg/kg 51 and 59% Anandan et al., 2005
Formaldehyde: 5 or 10 g 388 mg/kg 39 and 81% Anandan et al., 2005
Lime (CaO): 10, 20 or 40 g lime 388 mg/kg 67, 63, and 100% Anandan et al., 2005
Sodium chloride (common salt, NaCl): 5, 10 or 20 g 388 mg/kg 82, 86, and 91% Anandan et al., 2005
Tannic acid: 5 or 10 g 388 mg/kg only 54 and 27% Anandan et al., 2005
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH): 2.5, 5 or 10 g 388 mg/kg 82, 86, and 91% Anandan et al., 2005
Lime: 6 % during12 h

50 mg/kg; 1004 mg/kg; 1143 mg/kg

93 to 100% Silva et al., 2015
Cobianchi et al., 2012;
Diniz et al., 2010
Physico-chemical treatments       
Lime: 1-4%, in combination with autoclaving (1 atm. during 30 min) 117 mg/kg 91 to 100% Borja et al., 2017
Lime: 1, 2 or 7% in combination wih extrusion   100 % ricin destruction and allergenicity destruction at 7% lime Ascheri et al., 2005 cited by Lago, 2009
CaHPO4: 6 % in combination with autoclaving (1 atm during 1 h) 799 mg/kg 91 to 100 %

Furtado et al., 2012

Biological treatments      
Solid-state fermentation process using Penicillium simplissimum   100% + 16% reduction in allergenicity Godoy et al., 2009

Treatments with NaOH were found to be effective but the detoxified oilcakes resulting from those treatments were not readily consumed by livestock and they increased water consumption probably due to excessive Na intake (Araujo et al., 2019; Araujo et al., 2018; Anandan et al., 2005).

Destruction results were very variable because the initial levels of ricin in the cake were very different ranging from 50 mg to 1144 mg (Borja et al., 2017; Silva et al., 2015Cobianchi et al., 2012Diniz et al., 2010).

Forage management 

Yields

Worldwide average seed yield of castor plant is about 1 ton/ha, with a maximum of about 3 tons/ha (Maroyi, 2007). In Sicily (Italy), castor plants cultivated under irrigation yielded 3.45 tons seeds/ha and the seed oil content ranged from 45% to 48%, depending on cultivars (Anastasi et al., 2014). 

Nutritional aspects
Potential constraints 

Castor bean plant toxic substances

Castor bean products contain four toxic substances: ricin, ricinine, Ricinus communis agglutinin and allergen CB-1A. Amongst these substances, ricin is the most lethal (Anandan et al., 2005). Allergen is a problem for people manipulating castor oilcake/meal, but not for animals (Anandan et al., 2005).

It has been reported that frequent consumption of castor bean seeds could alleviate poisoning in cattle (Afonso et al., 2001).

Ricin

Ricin is the most notorious and deadly constituent found in the seed and in smaller amounts throughout the rest of the plant. Poisoning due to ricin occurs when animals ingest broken seeds, chew the seeds or eat undetoxified oilcake.

Mechanisms of ricin toxicity

Ricin is a glycoprotein lectin composed of 2 chains, A and B, linked by a disulphide bond (Audi et al., 2005; Akande et al., 2018). The B chain is a lectin and binds to galactose-containing glycoproteins and glycolipids expressed on the surface of cells, facilitating the entry of ricin into the cytosol. The A chain inhibits protein synthesis by irreversibly inactivating ribosomes which prevents chain elongation of polypeptides and leads to cell death (Audi et al., 2005). More details on Ricin structure and mode of action have been extensively reviewed (Lord et al., 1994).

The toxicity of ricin mainly consists in the inhibition of protein synthesis, but other mechanisms like apoptosis pathways, direct cell membrane damage, alteration of membrane structure and function, and inflammatory mediators are also described (Tamimi et al., 2008).

Symptoms

Symptoms of ricin poisoning begin within hours after exposure by ingestion or inhalation. They are not the same if they are due to seed ingestion or forage ingestion (Haritha et al., 2019).

The symptoms due to seed ingestion may include stomach irritation, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, increased heart rate, low blood pressure, profuse sweating, collapse, convulsions, and death within a few days (Salihu et al., 2014b).

There are some variation of symptoms among animal species. In horses, the signs are sweating, trembling, incoordination, vigorous heart action that shakes the whole body but pulse weak. Muscle spams, erection of penis or clitoris, abdominal colic and shallow respiration. In cattle, the signs are similar and temperature is elevated, diarrhoea also occurs stained with blood. In swine, vomiting occurs and often save their lives, the skin of ears, flanks and hams becomes cyanotic. In poultry depression is observed feathers are ruffled, the wings are drooping, comb and wattles are greyish. In hens, egg production is stopped and moulting occurs. Birds that don not quickly die loose weight (Weiss, 1971).

Ricinine

Ricinine is an alkaloid found in all parts of the plant and mainly in the leaves (1.3%DM) and in the pericarp (0.15%) of castor bean (Ricinus communis) (Severino et al., 2006). Ricinine content is higher in young tissues, damaged or stressed plants (Azevedo et al., 2007; Tavora, 1987; Moshkin, 1986)

Symptoms

In cattle or rabbits, intoxications by the leaves or the fruit pericarps containing ricinine were reported to have neurological effects while no lesions could be found in the central nervous systems. They caused lack of equilibrium, ataxia, head deviation, muscular tremors, sialorrhea (excessive salivation), and eructation. These signs could be followed by sudden recovery or death.

In mice, the animals receiving the higher doses of ricinine became exophtalmic, had tremors and clonic seizures, they died in a few minutes d tremors and clonic seizures and died a few minutes after receiving the extract.

Ricinus communis agglutinin

Ricinus communis agglutinin is a galactose-binding lectin that binds to endothelial cells at sites of plasma leakage and can be used in tumor treatment as they can induce the apopotosis of endothelial cells of tumor vessels (You et al., 2010).

Allergen CB-1A

Some complexes of protein and polysaccharides have been referred to as allergenic to people handling castor bean products. Animals were not reported to suffer from allergies (Candido et al., 2008).

Toxicity of castor bean seeds

The toxicity of castor bean seeds which is due to ricin is variable and depends upon the stage of maturity of the plant and on the animals that eat the plant. Though livestock usually do not eat feed contaminated by castor beans because of their reluctant smell, some could be poisoned by small amounts of castor bean seeds. In South Africa, cows and poultry consuming castor seeds remained unharmed (Weiss, 1971).

The lethal doses of castor bean seeds per species of animals  have been reported in the table below:

Lethal doses of castor bean seeds per animal species
Species Lethal dosis in g / kg BW
Horses 0.1
Cattle 2.0
Sheep 1.2
Goats 5.5
Pigs 1.4
Hens 14.0
Geese 0.4
Rabbits 1.0

Source: Weiss, 1971

Toxicity of castor bean oilcake or oilmeal

Ricin is found only in the endosperm of castor seed at 1-5 %, and cannot be found in the oil because it is insoluble in oil (Johnson et al., 2005; Lord et al., 1994). Thus, once the oil has been extracted, the oilcake still contains and concentrates ricin. The ricin content measured in several untreated castor oilcakes ranges between 12 to 1144 mg/kg DM (Anandan et al., 2005; Gowda et al., 2009; Diniz et al., 2010; Oliveira et al., 2010; Cobianchi et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2015; Borja et al., 2017).

Ruminants 

Preliminary caution

Due to the content of ricin, untreated castor oil cake (COC) must be used with caution because according to the process used for oil production, the level of ricin can be as high as 1.0 – 1.14 g/kg DM (Diniz et al., 2010; Cobianchi et al., 2012). After treatment the ricin content is generally low or null so that there is low risk for animals. However, in some situations treatment does not reduce the ricin content sufficiently to limit a possible toxic effect on the animal. It could be established that the level of ricin intake should be below 3.06 mg/kg body weight (Diniz et al., 2010). In most of the results presented in this synthesis, this level was not reached. However, the level of DCOC in the diet of ruminants, should be set as a function of the efficacy of the treatment.

Digestibility

There are few results on measuring digestibility of castor oil cake (COC) or detoxified COC.

The effectively dry matter degradability of COC and DCOC (treated with CaO) measured in sacco is 55.2 % and 50.8% respectively which is low compared to the 76.9 % of soybean meal (Diniz et al., 2011). The effective NDF degradability of COC or DCOC (treated with Ca(OH)2) is very low (15.5 to 18.4 %) compared to 53.7 % of soybean meal (Oliveira et al., 2010). The NDF content (corrected for nitrogen and ash) of COC in both studies (Diniz et al., 2011; Oliveira et al., 2010) are very close (472 - 475 g/ kg DM).

The effectively CP degradability of three COC ranges between 61.5-62.6 % (Oliveira et al., 2010) to 71.8 % (Diniz et al., 2011). After lime treatment it decreases to 57.4 - 58.1 % (Oliveira et al., 2010; Diniz et al., 2011), possibly due to the CaO treatment. These values are low compared to soybean meal: 66.2 % (Oliveira et al., 2010) and 70.6 % (Diniz et al., 2011).

These results mean that because CP degradability in the rumen is only 58 %, part of the CP are not available for the development of the microbes.

Cattle

There are few results on cattle. There are summarized in the table 1.

Country

Breed

Detoxified process used

Experiment

Rate of COC

Main results

Reference

Dairy cattle

Pakistan

Mehsani Buffalo

40 g/kg Lime,  extrusion cooking

DCOC included at 10% into the concentrate, 75 days

100 g/kg conc.

No effects on total intake, milk yield and composition;

Bhagwat et al., 2012

Brazil

Holstein (540kg; 100 DIM; 20.3 kg MY

60 g/kg CaO 12h and 48h sundried

DCOC replace SBM in total mixed ration, 21 days

0, 49.6, 99.3 or 148.8 g/kg diet

total DMI decreases with the two higher levels (15.4 vs 16.8 kg/d/c); DMD decreases with 49.6 and upper levels from 67.3% to 59.2%; MY and protein content decrease with  the two higher levels, but not fat..

Cobianchi et al., 2012

Brazil

Holstein x Zebu (509 kg; 100 DIM; 25 kg MY

60 g Ca(OH)2, and 8h 60°C

DCOC replace SBM in concentrate with a diet of 56% concentrate and 44% forage (B. brizantha pasture), 21 days

0, 7.6, 15 or 22.3 g/kg conc.

No differences in DMI, DMD, MY, milk composition and grazing behavior

Souza et al., 2016; Souza et al., 2017

Brazil

Holstein x Zebu (465 kg; 100 DIM; 15 kg MY

60 g/kg CaO 12h and sundried

DCOC replace SBM in concentrate with a diet of 56% concentrate and 44% forage (B. decumbens pasture), 84 days

0, 7.6, 15 or 22.3 g/kg conc.

DMI decreases with the two higher levels from 13.5 kg to 11.9; but no change in grazing behavior

Porto et al., 2016

Beef or growing cattle

Brazil

crossbred Zebu (360 kg)

60 g/kg CaO 12h and 48h sundried

DCOC replace 0 to 100% of SBM in a TMR based on corn silage

0, 30.5, 60.9, 91.4 g/kg TMR

No difference in DMI; ADG tends to increase with COCT level; carcass fat % decreases with COCT level whereas bone% increases and muscle does not change ; carcass yield in relation to body weight decreases with increasing level of COCT (from 53.7 to 51.4%); No difference was observed on DMD or CP digestibility of the diet

Diniz et al., 2010; Diniz et al., 2011

Brazil

crossbred Zebu (360 kg)

no treatment

COC replace 100% of SBM in a TMR based on corn silage

91.4 g/kg TMR

No difference in DMI; ADG tends to increase with COC level; carcass fat % is lower with COC whereas bone% is higher and muscle does not change; carcass yield in relation to body weight is lower COC than with SBM (51.7% vs 53.7%); No difference was observed on DMD or CP digestibility of the diet

Diniz et al., 2010; Diniz et al., 2011

Brazil

heifer (Nellore and crossbred zebu), 210 kg

60 g/kg CaO

DCOC replace 0 to 100% of SBM in a concentrate offered with Brachiaria decumbens pasture

0 to 50% into the concentrate

No difference in the DMI or ADG up to 67% replacement; with 100% replacement, both decrease; DMD and CP digestibility decrease with COCT level.

Barros et al., 2011

Brazil

heifers (Holstein × Zebu crossbred, 257 kg)

60 g Ca(OH)2

DCOC replace 0 to 100% of SBM in a concentrate offered (700g/100 kg BW) with Brachiaria decumbens pasture

0 to 27.7 % into the concentrate

Pasture DMI and DMD and CP digestibility decrease with increasing level of COCT particularly for the higher level; no effects on ADG or carcass dressing; fat cover was much lower with the higher level of COCT

Matos et al., 2018

Table 1

When dairy cows are fed with various levels of treated castor oil cake (COC) (3 to 15 % dietary level), dry matter intake (DMI), dry matter digestibility (DMD) and milk production are variable. The DMI, DMD and milk yield sometimes decrease with 8 to 15% levels (Cobianchi et al., 2012; Porto et al., 2016) and sometimes there is no effect up to 12.5 % (Souza et al., 2016). Neither DCOC nor forage or other parameters can explain such a contradictory result.

With fattening or growing cattle, when COC or DCOC replace up to 100 % of soybean meal, average daily weight gain is not modified except when the level of DCOC is 50 % into the concentrate. Generally, DMI is not modified except when the forage is high quality (15 % g CP/kg DM).

Sheep

Most of the results come from Brazil experience and are summarized in table 2.

Country

Breed

Detoxified process applied

Experiment

Rate of COC in diet or concentrate

Main results

Reference

Sheep

Brazil

mixed-breed castrated male sheep (56 kg)

solvent (SCOC) or expeller (ECOC) + 40 g/kg Ca(OH)2 18h and 5h 60°C

TMR including 60% corn silage and concentrate with 15% SBM or replaced with SCOC, SCOCT, ECOC, ECOCT; 21 days

SCOC, SCOCT, ECOC or ECOCT 15 % in TMR

No difference in DMI (although DMI of SCOCT and ECOCT tends to be higher than untreated COC) and no difference in DMD but CP digestibility tends to be higher with treated COC

Oliveira et al., 2010

Brazil

sheep 22.7kg and 60kg

60 g/kg Ca(OH)2 24h and 12h sundried

TMR including 40% Cenchrus ciliaris hay + 60% conc with SBM or COCT; 20 days

0, 4.7, 8.5 or 13.3 % in TMR

No health problem and good rumen environment

Menezes et al., 2012

Brazil

crossbred Morada Nova male lambs (18.7kg)

autoclaving, 15 psi, 123°C, 60 min

TMR with 50% Bermuda grass hay and 50 concentrate including SBM or COCT, 60-100 days

0, 5.1, 10.8 or 16.8 % in TMR

ADG decreases with increasing COCT level (from 197 to 130 g/d); carcass yield also decreases with COCT level and in both cases more with total replacement of SBM with COCT (16.8%); COCT can replace SBM up to 67% or 10.8% in this TMR

Pompeu et al., 2012

Brazil

crossbred Morada Nova female and male lambs (19.8kg)

autoclaving, 15 psi, 60 min (COCTa), 60 g/kg CaCO3 (COCTc) or 60 g/kg CaHPO4 (COCTp) 8h and sun dried; 10 g/kg urea (COCTu) 7d and sun dried

TMR with 50% Bermuda grass hay and 50 concentrate including SBM or COCT, 21 days

7.94 % in TMR

No difference in DMI (4.21 to 4.45 kg/100 kg BW) or DMD (66.3 to 67.8 %); according to the treatment, nitrogen balance is slightly different

Furtado et al., 2012; 2015

Brazil

crossbred lambs (20kg)

60 g/kg Ca(OH)2

TMR with 60% corn silage and 40 concentrate including SBM or COCT (wet or dried), 70 days

9 or 18% in TMR

No difference of DMI, DMD or ADG between COCT and SBM; DMI is higher with 18% than 9% but DMD is not different; no difference in carcass characteristics

Gionbelli et al., 2014

Brazil

crossbred Santa Inês × Morada Nova ewes (33 kg) mating, gestation up to weaning

CaO

COCT replacing 0 or100 % SBM in diet based on Guinea grass hay and concentrate, 290 days

14.5 % in concentrate

COCT had no effect on fertility (83 to 85%) or prolificacy or BW at birth. No effect on lamb growth and BW at weaning

Silva et al., 2014

Brazil

Santa Ines male lambs (4-6 mo, 26 kg)

40 g/kg Ca(OH)2, 12h, 48h sun dried

COCT replacing from 0 to 100% SBM in TMR including 50% Cynodon hay, 72 days

0, 6.75, 13.5, 20.25 or 27 % in TMR

No difference in DMI with increasing levels (28.6 to 30.2 g/kg BW) but DMD decrease from 67.8% to 52.6% with increasing COCT level and simultaneously with increasing indigestible NDF and ADF; ADG is not different (140 to 170 g/d)

Nicory et al., 2015a; Nicory et al., 2015b

Brazil

cross bred Santa Ines male lambs (5 mo, 19.8 kg)

autoclaving at 15 psi, 60 min

COCT replacing 0 or 100% SBM in TMR including 50% Cynodon hay, 72 days

0 or 12% in TMR

No difference in DMI (0.96 vs 0.99 kg/d) or DMD (70 vs 69 %); ADG is not different (190 vs 217 g/d) but hot and cold carcass and some component of the carcass were lower than with SBM

Alves et al., 2016

Brazil

Male lambs (10 mo, 21.7 kg)

60 g/kg of Ca(OH)2, 24h, 12h sun dried

COCT replacing from 0 to 45% SBM in TMR including 40 % Cynodon hay, 80 days

0, 4.7, 8.5 or 13.37 % in TMR

With increasing levels of COCT, no difference in DMI (28 to 32.2 g/kg BW) and DMD (64.8 to 69%); ADG is not different (153 to 166 g/d); hot and cold carcass were lower for the higher level (46.7 and 45.3% vs 49.6 and 48.5 %) but no differences for the component of the carcass

Menezes et al., 2016

Brazil

Santa Ines male lambs (10 mo, 21.7 kg)

60 g/kg of CaO 12h, 72 h sun dried

COCT replacing from 0 to 100 % SBM in TMR including 60 % sugarcane silage, 84 days

0, 7.05, 14.12 or 20.9 % in TMR

No difference in DMI (859 to 910 g/d) and no differnce in feeding behaviour

Oliveira et al., 2016

Brazil

Cross bred Santa Ines male lambs (10 mo, 25.6 kg)

10 g/kg CaO, autoclaved at 15 psi 30 min

COCT replacing 0 or 100% SBM in TMR including 50% Cynodon hay, 65 days

0, 10, 20 or 30 % in TMR

DMI (1.13 to 1.26 kg/d or 38.8 to 41.9 g/kg BW) is not different between COCT levels; but DMD decreases with increasing levels particularly with the highest (from 65.5 % to 55.6 %), and ADG tends to decrease with the higher level (146 vs 173-189 g/d); no difference in feeding behavior

Borja et al., 2017

Brazil

crossbred Morada Nova female and male lambs (7 mo, 18.7kg)

autoclaving, 15 psi, 123°C, 60 min (COCTa), 60 g/kg CaCO3 (COCTc) or 60 g/kg CaHPO4 (COCTp) 8h and sun dried; 10 g/kg urea (COCTu) 7d and sun dried

TMR with 49.3 % Bermuda grass hay and 50.7 % concentrate including SBM or COCT, 70 days

8.1 % in TMR

No difference in DMI (38 to 42 g/kg bw); according to the treatment, ADG was different with the highest (149-156 g/d) for COCTp and COCTa and the lowest (115-117 g/d) for untreated and COCTu

Gomes et al., 2017

Brazil

Dorper × Santa Ines male lambs (3 mo, 20.1 kg)

10 g/kg of Ca(OH)2

COCT replacing 0 or 67 % SBM in TMR including 50% Cynodon hay, 106 days

8 % in TMR

Lower level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscles,

Wanderley et al., 2018

India

Cross-bred adult Mandya male (24.5 kg)

sieved, ground and 4% lime and 3-4d sundried

TMR including 65% Eleucine straw + 35% conc with SBM or COC or COCT; 150 days

12.3 % COC or 12.3 COCT in place of SBM in TMR

No difference in DMI or DMD; no difference with ADG or carcass characteristics

Gowda et al., 2009

India

Lamb (3-4 months)

salt

COCT compare to GNC in concentarte + Rhodes grass hay ad libitum, 168 days

25% in the concentrate

No difference of DMI (562 vs 573 g/d), DMD or ADG (61.7 vs 61.5 g/d) between GNC and COCT; true digestible nitrogen was lower for COCT (54.8 %) than for GNC (62.1 %)

Anandharaj et al., 2015

Table 2

Generally, DCOC is included into a total mixed ration up to 30 % with a proportion of concentrate ranging from 25 to 60 % and low forage quality (less than 10 % of crude protein). Including DCOC into a diet does not change the total dry matter intake (DMI) or dry matter digestibility (DMD) and average daily weight gain is decreased except in two situations (Borja et al., 2017; Pompeu et al., 2012). Carcass yield (hot or cold) and characteristics either are not different (Gionbelli et al., 2014; Gowda et al., 2009) or lower compared to soybean meal (Borja et al., 2017; Menezes et al., 2016; Alves et al., 2016; Pompeu et al., 2012).

When DCOC replaces soybean meal into a concentrate (14.5 %) and is offered to ewes fed with Guinea grass, there are no difference in fertility, prolificacy or lamb weight or growth (Silva et al., 2014).

When measured, the inclusion of DCOC had no adverse effect on the health of the animals; metabolite, liver or renal enzymes confirm these observations.

In conclusion, DCOC could be included into a diet for fattening animals up to 20 % (on DM basis) with no negative effects.

Goats

The results obtained with goat species are summarized in table 3.

Country

Breed

Detoxified process used

Experiment

Rate of COC

Main results

Reference

Goats

Brazil

crossbred female (44.8 mo, 42.3 kg) maintenance

60 g/kg CaCO3, 12-18h and dried

COCT replacing 100% SBM in diet based on Bermuda grass hay and concentrate

15% in the concentrate

No difference in carcass characteristics and blood metabolites

Oliveira et al., 2013

Brazil

mixed breed kids (9.5 mo, 21.3 kg)

 

COCT replacing 100% SBM in diet based on Bermuda grass hay and concentrate

15% in the concentrate

No difference in carcass characteristics and blood metabolites

Oliveira et al., 2015

Brazil

mixed breed does (28 mo, 33.3 kg) froma mating to 60 d pregnancy

60 g/kg CaCO3, 12-18h and dried

COC or COCT replacing 0 or100 % SBM in TMR based on 70 % Guinea grass hay and 30 % concentrate, 70 days

12.9 % COC or 14.5 % COCT in TMR

COC or COCT had no effect on fertility (80 to 88.2 %) or prolificacy or early fetus development

Silva et al., 2015

Brazil

Boer × Anglo Nubian castrated kids (4 mo, 20 kg)

40 g/kg CaO, 12h and 48h sun dried

COCT replacing 0 or 100% SBM in TMR including 50 % Bermuda grass hay, 75 days

0, 10, 20 or 30 % in TMR

DMI and DMD decrease with increasing levels of COCT (0.73 to 0.46 kg/d and 60.6 to 44.7%); consequently, ADG decrease (99 to 37 g/d) and all carcass characteristics also with increasing levels of COCT; no effects on feeding behavior

Palmieri et al., 2016; Palmieri et al., 2017

Brazil

Saanen and Anglo-nubian (16.2 kg)

90 g/kg of Ca(OH)2 or 60 g/kg NaOH

COCT replacing 100 % SBM in TMR including  Bermuda grass hay (36 to 43 %)  ~ 240 days

8.3 % in TMR

DMI is lower for COCT (0.96-1.01 kg) than for SBM (1.12 kg); feeding behavior is linked to the DMI;

Araujo et al., 2018

Brazil

Alpine (60 days in milk, 44.3 kg)

60 g/kg of Ca(OH)2 12h, 72h sun dried

COCT replacing 0 to 100 % SBM in TMR including  Bermuda grass hay (50 %), 20 days

0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 % in TMR

No effect on DMI (4.02 to 4.26 % BW), DMD (63.9 to 67.5 %) or feeding behavior; no effect on MY (1.05 to 1.27 kg/d) or milk composition

Lima et al., 2020

India

kis (3-4 mo)

40 g/kg CaCO3 or 20 g/kg salt

COCT replacing groundnut cake into a concentrate plus finger millet straw ad libitum, 260 days

data not available

DMI is higher with COCT than groundnut cake but DMD is lower ; no difference in ADG

Nagesh et al., 2017

Table 3

When adult at maintenance or lactating does or growing kids are fed with diets containing DCOC up to about 20 % in the total diet, there are no adverse effects and milk yield or daily weight gain are not different compared to diet with soybean meal or groundnut cake.

Conclusion

Castor seed cake (or meal) treated with 40 or 60 g CaO/ kg is safe regarding its ricin content which is low or null. In such a treatment, COC is soaked in a solution prepared with lime ( CaO which is rapidly converted into Ca(OH)2 with heat production) and left 8 to 12 hours (more or less one night) and then is dried. When the treated COC (detoxified COC = DCOC) contains residual ricin, its level and total intake remain low and below the toxic threshold (3.06 mg/kg body weight) provided that DCOC level into the total diet is limited to about 20 % as recommended by several studies (see results in tables 1 and 2)(Diniz et al., 2010).

When DCOC is to be used into a diet,it must be borne in mind that the rumen degradability of the crude protein is lower than that of soybean meal (that is often replaced in the studies). Consequently, diets must take this aspect into account so that they do not hinder rumen bacteria development by availability of soluble nitrogen, and consequently diet digestibility. The origin of the COC must be known because according to the pre-treatment (husk eliminated or not) the level of NDF, ADF and lignin in the diet can be high and consequently reduce the digestibility of the diet if these parameters are not taken into consideration for balancing the diet (Cobianchi et al., 2012; Nicory et al., 2015a; Palmieri et al., 2016; Borja et al., 2017; Matos et al., 2018). Conversely, when they are included to balance the diet ( Oliveira et al., 2010; Gionbelli et al., 2014; Furtado et al., 2015; Alves et al., 2016; Menezes et al., 2016; Souza et al., 2016; Lima et al., 2020), no difference is observed.

Pigs 

Six different detoxified (by lime addition, autoclaving, calcium hydroxide + silage, autoclaving + silage and extrusion) castor oilseed cakes were used in growing pigs diet  in order to asses their nutritional and energy value. Castor bean cake subjected to detoxification processes with lime and autoclaving resulted in higher content of digestible protein (22.3 and 24.7%). For the metabolizable energy value, the process of detoxification with lime, autoclaving, lime+silage, and extrusion did not differ. Lime and autoclaving were the most efficient detoxifying methods for nutritional and energy values. It was suggested that lime detoxified castoir oil cake could be included at 10% in growing pigs diet (Silva et al., 2018).

An earlier study using increasing leveld (0, 33, 66 and 99%) of castor oilseed meal in a piglets soybean meal based diet reduced animal weight gains. The reduction could be alleviated when the diet was balanced in amino acids lysine and tryptophan. No improvement could be obtained by reautoclaving the oilcake and it was thus concluded that the lower performance of animals were due to the poor protein content of the diet (Benesi, 1979).

Fish 

Castor seeds have been used as a piscicide for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and panchax (Aplocheilus panchax). However, once the toxicity has disappeared (after 13-14 days), the castor seeds have some nutritive value for the pond. Castor seeds were reported to provide more N to the pond than mahua oilcake (Mondal et al., 2019).

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

Detoxified castor bean meal was used in order to replace increasing levels of fishmeal in grass carp juveniles (9 g) diet. It was shown that it was possible to replace up to 40% of the fishmeal through extruded diet containing 50g/kg castor oilmeal without impairing specific growth, feed conversion ratio, feed intake or Protein efficiency (Cai et al., 2005).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.9 1
Crude protein % DM 28.8 1
Crude fibre % DM 31.3 1
Ether extract % DM 2.2 1
Ash % DM 7.0 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.5 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 5.4 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 6.5 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bris et al., 1970

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:56

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.0 1
Crude protein % DM 38.5 1
Crude fibre % DM 32.3 1
Ether extract % DM 1.0 1
Ash % DM 6.9 6.6 7.1 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.9 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 8.5 7.6 9.4 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 9.4 8.7 10.0 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 4.3 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 205 1
Copper mg/kg DM 35 1
Iron mg/kg DM 49 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 10.0 1
Histidine % protein 1.7 1
Isoleucine % protein 5.3 1
Leucine % protein 6.4 1
Lysine % protein 3.0 1
Methionine % protein 1.5 1
Phenylalanine % protein 4.7 1
Threonine % protein 3.2 1
Tryptophan % protein 1.1 1
Tyrosine % protein 2.9 1
Valine % protein 5.4 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
ME ruminants (FAO, 1982) MJ/kg DM 7.7 1
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 80.8 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 39.4 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.8 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 6.7 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 2.7 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bris et al., 1970; Gowda et al., 2004; Lyman et al., 1958; Woodman, 1945

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:56

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/28 Last updated on September 30, 2020, 17:28

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