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Borneo tallow nut (Shorea stenoptera) oil meal

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).


Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Tree : Borneo tallow nut, borneo tallow nut [English]; Illipé de Bornéo [French], portianak, tengkawang tayau, tengkawang tungkul [Bahasa indonesia]; engkabang kerangas, engkabang rusa [Bahasa malaysia]

Related feed(s) 

Borneo tallow nut oil cake is the product resulting from the oil extraction of borneo tallow nuts.

Tree description

Shorea stenoptera is a multipurpose tropical tree growing to a height of 6-25 (-30) m high. It has a straight bole up to 60-70 cm in diameter. The bole has no of thin, low buttresses.The crown is conical to hemispherical in shape with pendulous branches. The leaves are simple, oblong, thickly leathery, 18-40 cm long × 8-22 cm broad. The fruits are acornlike, large (the largest in the genus Shorea), equiped with winglike attachments that enable the nut to fall clear of the parent tree (Fern, 2021, Sosef, 2017) .


Shorea stenoptera is a multipurpose tree. The nuts are yielding "Borneo tallow" also locally called "tangkawang" or "false illipe butter". This fat substance is used as a cosmetics or as an ingredient in food, substituting milk butter or cocoa butter (Darmawan et al., 2021). The coproduct of Borneo tallow is borneo tallow oilmeal or oilcake that can be fed to farm animals. The tree has also valuable timber known as light red meranti (Fern, 2021; Darmawan et al., 2021; Sosef, 2017).


Shorea stenoptera is endemic to Indonesia (Kalimantan) and Malaysia (Sarawak) (Randi et al., 2019). It is mainly found in heath forest on poorly drained sandy soils and podzols at low altitudes (Sosef, 2017). Shorea stenoptera is tolerant of flooding. It is mainly found in the wild but some specimen may be grown in agroforestry systems, in rubber plantations, for example (Nöldeke et al., 2021).


The fallen nuts are collected from the ground and dried in the sun until the shells are sufficiently brittle. The kernels are then removed from the shell and pounded in mortars. The ground kernels are usually solvent extracted and yield 2 products : borneo tallow or false illipe butter and borneo tallow oil meal/cake (Fern, 2021).

Environmental impact 

Near threathened species

Shorea stenoptera was classified as near threatened species in Indonesia and Malaysia (IUCN, 2019)

Agroforestry systems and ecosystemic services

Shorea stenoptera is a valuable agroforestry species. It can be grown in association with rubber trees in plantations where it helps biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration. It is particularly suitable on tropical peatlands as they prevent carbon losses from the peat.  It has been used in peatland restoration in China (FAO, . The canopy cover provides habitat to orangutan and other species, preserving local biodiversity (Nöldeke et al., 2021).

Nutritional aspects

The meal, though nontoxic, contains tannic acid and should therefore be used at low levels. It cannot be fed to chicks, and diets for layers should include not more than 10% as higher levels will produce eggs with greenish brown yolks.


Up to now (May 2020), no information seems available in the international literature, on the use of Shorea stenoptera nut cake in rabbit feeding. However this by-product of the production of one of the few vegetable fats allowed to be used in chocolate preparation, according to the European Union rules, is used in ruminants or poultry feeding (Kneeland, 1958; Aiple et al, 1996; Fychan et al, 2008). For this reasons illipe nut cake could be considered as a potential raw material in formulation of rabbit feeds, but direct experiments are necessary before any recommendation of use.

One potential constraint is the residual content in highly saturated lipid of the cake (2-3%). Because of the great ability of the rabbit to fix dietary lipids in it’s own lipids, the use of illipe nut cake would induce an alteration of the lipid profile of rabbit meat (Lebas, 2007). Including illipe nut oil cake in rabbit ration would reduce the relatively high content of rabbit meat in linolenic and docosahexanoic acids (Van Lissum et al., 2019) and increase stearic and palmitic acids (Gunstone, 2006), both undesirable fatty acids for humans consuming rabbit's meat.

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.5 89.1 89.8 2
Crude protein % DM 14.6 11.7 17.5 2
Crude fibre % DM 5.7 4.6 6.8 2
Ether extract % DM 2.6 2.0 3.1 2
Ash % DM 3.0 2.2 3.8 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.4 *
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 81.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.0 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Kneeland, 1958

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:49

Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/24 Last updated on October 12, 2021, 16:40

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