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Axlewood (Anogeissus latifolia)


Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Axlewood, baklee, buttontree, chall, dhaura, dindiga-tree, ghattitree, gum-ghatti, kardhaie [English]; raam [Vietnamese]; ميشطة عريضة الأوراق [Arabic]; धावा [Hindi]; മഴുക്കാഞ്ഞിരം [Malayalam]; సిరిమాను చెట్టు [Telugu]


Conocarpus latifolius Roxb. ex DC.

Feed categories 

Axlewood (Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Bedd.) is a small to medium-sized tree up to 20-36 m tall, with a straight and cylindrical bole up to 80-100 cm in diameter. Its wide leaves (that give it the name latifolia) are opposite or sub-opposite, simple with grayish-yellow or whitish hairs below. The fruit is a 2-winged pseudo-achene, packed into a dense head with a single seed (Orwa et al., 2009).

Anogeissus latifolia timber gives a heavy hardwood, good charcoal and firewood. It provides a gum that is a good substitute for gum arabic. Its leaves give tannins used for tanning and dyeing. Anogeissus latifolia is used as fodder for cattle, buffaloes and other ruminants (Orwa et al., 2009). In certain areas of the subtropical forest of the Himalayan foothills of India, Anogeissus latifolia is the most important fodder, fuel and timber tree, and excessive lopping of leaves and cutting of saplings and branches for firewood may cause poor regeneration (Kumar et al., 2006). In these regions, Anogeissus latifolia may be a major fodder tree for buffaloes in pastoralist communities (Edgaonkar, 1995)


Anogeissus latifolia is native to India, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka, and found throughout tropical Asia. A tree of tropical and subtropical climates, it is found in deciduous or semi-evergreen forests. It is a common element in teak forests but also occurs in the understorey of dipterocarp forests, in bamboo forests. It is also present in vegetation under semi-arid conditions such as savanna woodland and dry rocky hills. It is usually associated with Albizia lebbeckDalbergia spp., Grewia tiliaefoliaAlbizia amaraGyrocarpus jacquini and Mesua ferrea (Orwa et al., 2009; Singh, 1982). In India, it grows in most parts of the country except in arid areas and moist areas of North-West India (Singh, 1982). Anogeissus latifolia grows up to an altitude of 1200 m, with an average annual temperature of 38-45°C and an average rainfall of 625-2250 mm. It is found on a variety of soil types but prefers deep alluvial soils. It does not tolerate waterlogging (Orwa et al., 2009; Singh, 1982).

Forage management 

In India, Anogeissus latifolia is leafless from February to May, flowers from June to September depending on locality, and mature fruits are present from December to March. Leaf flushing begins in the dry season, peaking before the onset of rains (Orwa et al., 2009).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

The protein content of Anogeissus latifolia leaves is in the 7-12% DM range (Sen, 1938; Bakshi et al., 2011; Singh et al., 1998). In India season did not have any significant impact on the protein and ash content of the leaves, but the NDF, ADF and lignin were the lowest in summer and the highest in winter (Bakshi et al., 2011).

Potential constraints 

The leaves are rich in tannins (Bakshi et al., 2011).


There are few reports concerning the use of Anogeissus latifolia as fodder. The leaves are browsed by cattle and other ruminants. Organic matter digestibility of dry leaves was 60% in goats with a DM intake of 2.58% of live weight (Chanda et al., 1988). Degradability of Anogeissus latifolia leaves was higher than for other local Indian tree species and the rumen fill value was the lowest (particularly in summer), suggesting that the leaves are a good potential source of nutrients for ruminants and suitable for use as supplements (Chanda et al., 1988; Singh et al., 1998).

Other species 

The flowers of Anogeissus latifolia are an important pollen source for bees. Tussar silkworms (Antheraea mylitta and Antheraea proylei) are fed on its foliage (Orwa et al., 2009).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 8.3 7.5 9.1 2
Crude fibre % DM 24.2 1
NDF % DM 49.0 1
ADF % DM 37.6 1
Lignin % DM 10.3 1
Ether extract % DM 2.9 2.2 3.6 2
Ash % DM 8.4 7.3 9.5 2
Total sugars % DM 4.6 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.8 *
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 22.0 13.6 30.3 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.0 0.5 3.4 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.0 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 0 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 0 1
Copper mg/kg DM 0 1
Iron mg/kg DM 0 1
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 150.0 1
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 2.5 1
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 50.4 1
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 46.7 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 6.8 *
ME ruminants (FAO, 1982) MJ/kg DM 7.2 1
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 8.0 1
a (N) % 15.3 1
b (N) % 73.0 1
c (N) h-1 0.079 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 64 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 57 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Bakshi et al., 2011; Sen, 1938

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:40

Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2016. Axlewood (Anogeissus latifolia). Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/186 Last updated on March 22, 2016, 14:20

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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