Feedipedia
Animal feed resources information system
Feedipedia
Feedipedia

Punj, 1988. In: Proc. Non-conventional feed resources and fibrous agricultural residues strategies for expanded utilization, Hisar, India, 21-29 March 1988: 50-61

Document reference 
Punj, M. L., 1988. Availability and utilization of non-conventional feed resources and their utilization by ruminants in South Asia. In: Proc. Non-conventional feed resources and fibrous agricultural residues strategies for expanded utilization, Hisar, India, 21-29 March 1988: 50-61
Abstract 

A major gap exists between the requirements and supplies of concentrates and green and dry fodders for feeding livestock in South Asia. To alleviate this shortage, it is essential to increase these feeds by growing more fodders, promoting agroforestry and social forestry, improving the nutritive value of crop residues and utilizing non-conventional feeds. Potentially valuable feeds include rubber [Hevea brasiliensis] seed cake, sal [Shorea robusta] seed meal, spent anatto [Bixa orellana] seeds, tapioca waste, tea waste, babul [Acacia nilotica] seeds, slaughter house byproducts, animal organic wastes (cattle dung, poultry excreta), casia tora [Cassia tora] seeds, mango [Mangifera indica] seed kernels, niger seed cake, karanj [Pongamia pinnata] cake, guar meal, Prosopis juliflora pods and cassava leaf meal. Many of these feeds are low in energy, protein and minerals and have high contents of lignins and silica. The main constraints to the use of non-conventional feed resources are collection, dehydration for high moisture materials and detoxification processes. Processing technologies that are economic and practical are urgently required. Some of the materials, like sal seed meal, neem [Azadirachta indica] seed cake, mahua [Madhuca sp.] seed cake and palas [Butea sp.] seed cake, are available in large quantities but due to the presence of potent toxic substances, have limited value as animal feeds. Many of the forest tree seeds contain 15-35% oil and are used for the extraction of oil, after which the cake is valuable as animal feeds and as manure. Animal organic waste such as dung and poultry excreta are also potentially valuable as animal feeds. The availability and utilization of non-conventional feeds and inherent constraints are discussed.

Citation key 
Punj, 1988