Animal feed resources information system

Ethiopian feed industry: current status, challenges and opportunities

By Seyoum Bediye, Gemechu Nemi and Harinder Makkar

In terms of livestock wealth, Ethiopia is endowed with largest domestic animal population in Africa, composed of diverse animal species and breeds. Animal production is key to economic development in Ethiopia. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the current status of the feed industry. Currently 32 private companies and 28 farmers’ unions are engaged in compound feed production, which produce only 61,416 tonnes of feed in a year. The Ethiopian feed industry faces several challenges such as high cost of ingredients, unfair taxing policy, low demand of compound feed, among others. Opportunities, however, also exist for the feed industry, which are also highlighted.

Hydroponic fodder production: A critical assessment

The shortage of green fodder in most of the Middle East, African and Asian countries has generated a renewed interest in hydroponic fodder production. The technology requires only 1-3% space and 2-5% water for irrigation in comparison to that required under traditional fodder production. Furthermore, on per unit area basis, the fodder yield is 3-5 times higher than the traditional farming. A critical assessment of hi-tech and low-cost hydroponic systems revealed that the latter has an edge over the former in all aspects. Using the low-cost systems, the fodder production can be economized and these systems can be applied in situations faced with scarce water and land supply, and where the traditionally grown fodder is available in low amounts and at high price.

More fuel for the food/feed debate

By 2050, human population will reach 9.6 billion people with ever higher demand for animal products. However, animal production is increasingly criticized for the competition between feed and food crops and for low efficiency of conversion of food crops to animal products. Arguing the health benefits of animal products for humans, this paper suggests to look beyond the comparison between food and feed seen in terms of energy or protein only. Other issues that need consideration are feed edibility, use of land, coproducts production and waste reduction.

Utilization of empty pea (Pisum sativum) pods as livestock feed

M. Wadhwa, M.P.S. Bakshi and Harinder P.S. Makkar

Empty pea pods is an important byproduct of pea production. It is a valuable feed for livestock. Empty pea pods can be offered fresh alone or with waste-resources such as cull carrots. In the dried form they can be included in rations with forage legume hay like berseem. They can be ensiled with other byproducts such as wheat straw and then fed. This article provides information on the composition and nutritive value of empty pea pods and the ways they can be used to feed livestock.

Ultra-low gossypol cottonseed (ULGCS) as a feed for non-ruminants to enhance human nutrition security

Keerti S. Rathore, Thomas C. Wedegaertner, and Kater Hake

Cotton plant is not only the most important source of natural textile fibre in the world but also one of the most important source of oil and cottonseed meal that can make available 10.8 million tons crude protein per year. However, the nutritive value of this protein is hampered by a toxic substance, gossypol, present in seed glands. Gossypol is detrimental to monogastric animals as well as humans. However, it acts as a deterrent to pests and is beneficial for the plant. This article reports use of new generation biotechnologies to engineer a cotton plant that resulted in the reduction of gossypol from ~10,000 ppm to about 250 ppm in only the seed, without affecting gossypol levels in other parts of the plant and thus maintaining the pest-deterrent traits. Cottonseed meal produced from such ultra-low gossypol cotton has potential use in the diets of poultry, pigs and aquatic species.

Utilization of baby corn by-products and waste as livestock feed

Mohinder P.S. Bakshi, M. Wadhwa and Harinder P.S. Makkar

The production of baby corn intended for human consumption has been steadily increasing in the past decade, resulting in byproducts such as fresh or ensiled baby corn husk and baby corn fodder. The use of these byproducts for animal feeding not only improves food security but also contributes to alleviation of environmental issues associated with their disposal. This article deals with different uses of baby corn byproducts for livestock feeding.

Ergot, ergotism and feed regulations

Harinder Makkar

Ergot is a disease of cereal crops and grasses that is caused by fungi of the Claviceps genus. Claviceps includes about 50 known species, mostly in tropical regions. The sclerotia of Claviceps species are known as ergot. The fungi produce ergot alkaloids, also denoted ergolines, which are responsible for a disease called ergotism in livestock and humans. The article presents the symptoms of ergotism in animals, and the treatments and feed regulations associated with ergot.

How tradition constrains progress towards the development of the dairy industries of southern Asia

By John Moran (Profitable Dairy Systems, Kyabram, Victoria, Australia) and Geoff Walker (Land O’ Lakes, Dhaka, Bangladesh)

With increasing per capita consumption of milk and other dairy products throughout developing countries, virtually every country in southern Asia is seeking to increase its domestic production of raw milk. However, the continuous use of certain traditional practices (feeding, watering, stock management, housing and comfort) in smallholder dairy farms has adversely impacted on the rate of development of such dairy industries. We have a challenge to ensure that better models, such as those used in Vietnam and Thailand, are spread much more widely than is the case at present in traditional dairying sectors such as in Bangladesh and other countries in the Indian subcontinent.

NIR-based detection of contaminants in food and feed

By V. Baeten and P. Dardenne

The use of near-infrared (NIR) technologies for the detection of contaminants and undesirable substances in food and feed products is not widely practised. There have been many papers, however, on extensive studies on this topic (see Baeten et al., 2015). They have demonstrated some unique advantages of using this fingerprinting technique in the continuing effort to give the stakeholders the means to detect contaminants at all stages of the food and feed chains.

Animal nutrition: beyond the boundaries of feed and feeding

By Harinder P. S. Makkar

Animal nutrition is the foundation of livestock production systems and a multifaceted theme. It is not only the science of feed preparation and feeding – it influences almost every sector of the livestock production – from animal reproduction, health and welfare – to farm economic viability, environment, animal product safety and quality. This paper intends to weave strands from these domains with animal nutrition and overall sustainability of the livestock operation.