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Rice straw

Description and recommendations

Common names

Rice straw, paddy straw

Synonyms

Oryza glutinosa Lour., Oryza sativa var. affinis Körn., Oryza sativa var. erythroceros Körn., Oryza sativa var. flavoacies Kara-Murza ex Zhuk., Oryza sativa subsp. indica Kato., Oryza sativa cv. italica Alef., Oryza sativa subsp. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. melanacra Körn., Oryza sativa var. suberythroceros Kanevsk, Oryza sativa var. vulgaris Körn., Oryza sativa var. zeravschanica Brches ex Katzaroff, nom. nud. (USDA, 2009)

Related feed(s)

Description

Rice straw is the vegetative part of the rice plant (Oryza sativa, L.), cut at grain harvest or after. It may be burned and left on the field before the next ploughing, ploughed down as soil improver or used as a feed for livestock (Kadam et al., 2000). Rice straw is a major forage in rice-producing areas.

Distribution

Rice originates from Asia where it has been cultivated since 6500 BC and is now naturalized in most and tropical and subtropical regions. Rice grows from 53°N in China to 35°S in Australia. The optimal growing conditions are: 20-30°C average day-temperature with night temperature over 15°C; fertile, heavy soils, 6.5-7 pH. Most varieties ("swamp rice", "lowland rice") must be planted in stagnant water and require 200 mm rainfall/month or equivalent amount from irrigation, whereas others ("mountain rice" or "upland rice") require less irrigation and 750 mm rainfall on a 3-4 months period and no dessication.

Processes

Rice straw can be treated in order to improve its nutritive value. Those treatments are designed to enhance feed intake or/and digestibility. Improving digestibility may be achieved through mechanical, chemical, heat and pressure treatments.

Mechanical treatments

Chopping and grinding rice straw may reduce time of passage in the rumen and improve feed intake (Doyle et al., 1986).

Chemical treatments

Chemical treatments (NaOH, ammonia, urea) may be hazardous to human and animals (heavy urination, faster rumen washout).

  • NaOH treatment consists in washing the straw after treatment and may cause water pollution.
  • Ammonia treatments are safer and provide nitrogen that is lacking in straw. Ammonia reduces physical strength and disrupts silicified cuticles in leaves. Ammonia treatments increase digestibility by 31% (Van Soest, 2006).
  • Urea treatment is the easiest to make. It can be done at small-farmer scale in plastic bags with 5% urea w/w. It increases digestibility by 18% (Van Soest, 2006).

Heat and pressure treatments

  • Steam pressure: it releases acetyl groups from the hemi-cellulose, thus increasing digestibility
  • Association of steam pressure and ammonia : this treatment was reported to induce severe hyper excitability in cattle (Van Soest, 2006)

Environmental impact

When rice straw is burned or ploughed down, it may cause air pollution or leachates. Ploughing down may also propagate fungi (Kadam et al., 2000). Feeding it to livestock is a way to reduce its environmental impact and to make the best use of rice as an energy source and as a protein provider. Cattle dung can be burned or composted to benefit from rice energy and to improve soil properties.

Potential constraints

Rice straw contains less lignin than other straws but has a higher silica content. The leaves contain more silica than the stems (Van Soest, 2006), and it is recommended to cut rice straw as short as possible to increase the proportion of stems (Göhl, 1982; Van Soest, 2006). Silicas are cell-wall bound or soluble. They are excreted in the urine and some calculi may occur but this not seem to be a serious problem.

Rice straw contains high levels of oxalates (1-2 % DM), which are known to decrease Ca concentration, making Ca supplementation necessary (Van Soest, 2006; Jackson, 1979).

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Ruminants

Nutritional interest and quality

The quality of rice straw depends on many factors: variety, time between harvest and storage, N fertilization, plant maturity (lignin content increases with maturity), plant health and weather conditions (Göhl, 1982; Drake et al., 2002). Rice straw is a good source of energy, but is poor in protein (2-7%) and its high silica content results in a a low digestibility (Drake et al., 2002). It is considered as a low quality and variable roughage. Minerals (particularly sulphur) can be limiting factors (Doyle et al., 1986). Other limitations include:

  • High NDF content resulting in poor DM intake and low fat-corrected milk yield (Kanjanapruthipong et al., 2006)
  • Low content in P, Cu, Zn Ca and NaCl that do not meet animal requirements (Gowda et al., 2005),
  • Low energy content compared to maize grain and lower palatability (Odai et al., 2002), resulting in poorer N utilization.

When straws are fed to ruminants, the primary limitations to production are low overall digestibility, slow rate of passage in the rumen, low propionate fermentation pattern in the rumen, and low contents of fermentable N and by-pass protein.

Use

Depending on the farming systems, there are several ways to feed ruminants with rice straw (Doyle et al., 1986):

  • In extensive systems, the animals are allowed to enter paddy fields after harvest and graze rice straw and weeds in the field or on the roadsides.
  • In less extensive systems, the animals are tethered in the paddy field close to stacks of rice straw.
  • In stall-fed systems, rice straw may be fed alone, fed with other forage supplements, or fed concentrates

Supplementation

Supplementation is highly recommended in order to mitigate the nutritional weaknesses of rice straw.

In ruminants, when milk or meat production is desired, rice straw must be supplemented with protein sources and energy sources. For good growth on straw diets, a level of 8 to 10 percent protein is needed for young stock ; this also improves consumption and thus increases energy intake (Jackson, 1979).

Legumes are often suggested as supplementary protein sources. Many potential legume supplements have been reviewed and proved to give good results: vetch (Lathyrus sativus) (Akbar et al., 2000), stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) (Khuc Thi Hue et al., 2008), griffonia (Griffonia simplicifolia) (Oddoye et al., 2005), gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) (Kusmartono, 2007; Orden et al., 2000), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) (Orden et al., 2000), velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) (Adjorlolo et al., 2001), tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia) (Premaratne et al., 1998).

Other plants may also be used as protein supplement in a rice straw-based diet: cassava leaves or cassava hay (Vongsamphanh et al., 2004; Premaratne et al., 1998), jackfruit wastes (Khuc Thi Hue et al., 2008) or mulberry leaves (Liu et al., 2002).

Grasses such as Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) are also potential protein supplements (Wittayakun et al., 2005; Kusmartono, 2007; Ngo Van Man et al., 2001).

Costlier protein-rich feeds such as rapeseed meal (Liu et al., 2002), soybean meal (Odai et al., 2002) and even fish meal may also be used (Khan et al., 1990). Supplementary energy sources include maize silage (Liu XiaoHui et al., 2006), commercial concentrate mixture (Bhaskar et al., 1992) sugarcane molasses (Nguyen Xuan Trach, 2004) or groundnut haulms (Fayomi et al., 2004). Supplementation may be combined with mechanical, chemical and pressure treatments.

Rice straw fed alone proved to be nutritive enough to feed draught cattle during short periods but did not meet full animal requirements and had to be supplemented with crude protein sources and mineral sources (particularly P and Ca) (Jackson, 1979).

Cattle

In dairy cows, legume protein sources were found to have positive effects on DM intake (Oddoye et al., 2002), milk yield and milk composition (Akbar et al., 2000). Higher feed intake and rice straw digestibility may also be obtained when adding maize silage to rice straw (Liu XiaoHui et al., 2006) or when treating rice straw chemically. Those treatments improve rice degradability; total digestible nutrients and N retention in cows (Shen HengSheng et al., 2002; Prasad et al., 1998; Ha et al., 1994). Combination of chemical treatments with grass or protein supplements also offers a wide range of improved diets for cows with positive effects on dairy production and feed costs (Wittayakun et al., 2005; Oddoye et al., 2002; Ngo Van Man et al., 2001; Bhaskar et al., 1992; Khan et al., 1990).

In dairy heifers, combination of urea-treated rice straw with cottonseed cake resulted in optimal weight gain and lowest feed costs while rice straw mixed with rice bran and urea-molasses improved live weight gain, weight of calves and milk yield (Hari Singh et al., 2001).

In cows and heifers, ensiling rice straw was beneficial to daily milk yield (Chen XiLing et al., 1995) or on fat milk content (Ngo Van Man et al., 2001). However, silage or fermentation has to be done cautiously since damp rice straw was shown to have lower DM and overall nutrients and was prone to moulds and aflatoxin contamination in milk (Bhuiyan et al., 2003).

In steers, chemical treatments were also shown to increase feed intake and animal performances (Nguyen Xuan Trach, 2004; Cardoso et al., 2004).

Supplementation with cassava hay, sugarcane molasses or wet brewers grain also resulted in higher feed intake and digestibility (Vongsamphanh et al., 2004; Nguyen Xuan Trach, 2003). However soy sauce residue decreased DM intake (Maliwan et al., 2009).

Urea treatments combined with protein supplementation did not give better results than supplementation alone (Nguyen Xuan Trach, 2003).

Wood ash or polysorbate 80 (Tween 80®) treatment added to protein supplementation improved DM disappearance and overall nutritive value (Laswai et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2007).

Sheep

Every treatment or supplementation of rice straw was beneficial on feed efficiency and animal performances (Kusmartono, 2007; Oddoye et al., 2005; Premaratne et al., 1998; Abdella et al., 1998; Damasceno et al., 2000; Orden et al., 2000; Harada et al., 1999; Rajeev Pradhan et al., 1996). A single trial reported supplement (mature poplar leaves) to have no beneficial effect on rice straw value (Paliwal et al., 1993).

Ensiling rice straw with Ruminoccocus albus and Clostridium cellulovorans increased digestibility and nutritive value (El-Galil, 2008). Lactobacillus plantarum improved total digestible nutrients, digestible energy and dry matter intake (Xu Chun Cheng et al., 2006). Other attempts were less successful: fermenting rice straw with Flamulina velutipes had no effect on Hanwoo sheep intake or performances (Shinekhuu et al., 2009). Ensiling rice straw with mature poplar leaves did not ensure sheep maintenance (Paliwal et al., 1993).

Combining treatment and supplementation gave positive results, as reported in the following table.

Rice straw treatments and supplementation in sheep

Treatment Supplementation Result Reference
Urea Cassava leaves + jackfruit leaves + Stylosanthes Can replace commercial concentrate Khuc Thi Hue et al., 2008
Urea Sun-dried poultry manure Increased protein intake and daily weight gain Abubakar et al., 2006
Ammonia   Increased feed intake and protein intake Fadel et al., 2004
ammonia Mulberry Decreased feed costs Liu et al., 2002
ammonia Gliricidia sepium + Leucaena leucocephala Increased DM intake, N utilization Orden et al., 2000
NaOH Mucuna pruriens Increased degradability Adjorlolo et al., 2001

Goats

Supplementing rice straw with cassava leaves or apple pomace or/and treating rice straw gave better intake, N retention daily weight gain (Ho Quang Do et al., 2002; Jo IkHwan et al., 2002).

Pigs

Rice straw fermented with white rot fungi was given to pigs with no deleterious effect on pig performances and feed conversion efficiency (Chen Yi et al., 2004).

Rabbits

Rice straw can replace alfalfa in pelleted diets (Ferrero, 1993). Inclusion levels as high as 30% were possible without altering animal performances when NaOH-treated rice straw replaced alfalfa (Masoero cited by Lebas, 2004). 15% rice straw +10% molasses have been recommended in order to decrease feed costs (Sfairopoulos et al., 1987).

Rabbits may be fed on rice straw, treated or not, inoculated with Coprinus finetarius without deleterious effects on rabbits performances (Deodhar et al., 1991).

Fish

Rice straw is mainly used as a fertilizer for ponds (rice straw is included at 5-10 % of the compost) in fish farming (Hasan et al., 2007).

Citation

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2013. Rice straw. Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/557 Last updated on March 15, 2013, 14:12

Tables

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.8 1.5 89.3 96.5 206
Crude protein % DM 4.2 1.1 2.4 6.8 237
Crude fibre % DM 35.1 3.1 29.8 41.5 185
NDF % DM 69.1 4.2 61.7 78.6 159
ADF % DM 42.4 3.5 36.7 52.0 162
Lignin % DM 4.8 0.8 2.9 7.1 149
Ether extract % DM 1.4 0.3 0.9 2.1 161
Ash % DM 18.1 3.2 12.0 24.0 229
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 15.5 0.7 15.1 16.8 7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.9 0.7 1.7 4.4 145
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.9 0.3 0.5 1.7 147
Potassium g/kg DM 18.0 3.4 10.5 24.5 125
Sodium g/kg DM 2.7 2.5 0.0 8.6 66
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.9 0.5 1.0 3.0 130
Manganese mg/kg DM 454 220 155 924 57
Zinc mg/kg DM 34 7 20 56 59
Copper mg/kg DM 6 3 2 12 56
Iron mg/kg DM 335 268 120 765 5
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 0.1 1
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 0.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 49.8 2.8 46.0 56.0 15
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 46.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 5.8 0.3 5.7 6.3 3 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 2.1 31.7 -38.3 49.6 8
a (N) % 23.5 11.0 36.0 2
b (N) % 55.1 28.1 82.0 2
c (N) h-1 0.032 0.024 0.040 2
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 48 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 43 43 44 2 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 35.0 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 5.4 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abdullah et al., 1992; Abreu et al., 1998; Achacoso, 1956; AFZ, 2011; Agbagla et al., 1993; Begum et al., 2000; Bennison et al., 1998; Boukary-Mori, 2000; CGIAR, 2009; Chandra et al., 1971; Cheat Sophal et al., 2010; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; Dao Lan Nhi et al., 2001; Doyle et al., 1990; FUSAGx/CRAW, 2009; Gowda et al., 2004; Gowda et al., 2005; Holm, 1971; Huque et al., 1995; IAV, 2009; Ibrahim et al., 1989; Ibrahim et al., 1990; Karunanandaa et al., 1996; Keir et al., 1997; Kennedy, 1995; Krishnamoorthy et al., 1995; Lander et al., 1931; Liu et al., 1995; Ly et al., 2002; McMeniman et al., 1988; Meschy, 2010; Moran et al., 1983; Navaratne et al., 1990; Ngi et al., 2006; Nguyen Van Hao et al., 2001; Nsahlai et al., 1999; Onwuka et al., 1997; Orden et al., 2000; Orskov et al., 1992; Pozy et al., 1996; Prasad et al., 2005; Premaratne et al., 1998; Rai et al., 1989; Rasool et al., 1998; Reddy, 1997; Richard et al., 1989; Shen et al., 1998; Sirohi et al., 1997; Suksombat, 2004; Vadiveloo et al., 1992; Vadiveloo, 1992; Vongsamphanh et al., 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:24

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 94.0 2.9 85.4 97.4 19
Crude protein % DM 7.9 2.4 4.4 13.6 23
Crude fibre % DM 34.2 3.3 29.7 41.6 9
NDF % DM 68.6 4.8 59.9 74.4 18
ADF % DM 42.3 3.5 36.7 50.0 19
Lignin % DM 5.2 1.3 3.3 8.2 16
Ether extract % DM 1.3 0.2 0.9 1.6 6
Ash % DM 19.3 4.1 10.5 25.3 18
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.0 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.2 1.4 2.0 6.6 11
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.5 0.9 0.7 3.8 11
Potassium g/kg DM 17.5 3.4 12.9 23.0 7
Sodium g/kg DM 4.7 1.9 2.4 6.8 4
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.7 0.3 1.2 1.9 7
Manganese mg/kg DM 387 379 396 2
Zinc mg/kg DM 37 12 28 51 3
Copper mg/kg DM 3 2 2 5 3
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 59.9 1.0 59.2 61.0 3
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 56.4 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 43.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; IAV, 2009; Ibrahim et al., 1989; Ibrahim et al., 1990; Navaratne et al., 1990; Richard et al., 1989; Shen et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:24

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 70.9 1
Crude protein % DM 11.0 9.5 12.5 2
NDF % DM 67.5 61.8 73.1 2
Ash % DM 15.2 14.8 15.6 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 57.6 1
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 54.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 60.1 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Liu et al., 1995; Liu et al., 2000

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:24

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 69.4 15.0 48.2 83.7 4
Crude protein % DM 2.9 0.7 2.3 4.0 4
Crude fibre % DM 36.2 6.8 31.0 46.1 4
NDF % DM 63.4 59.9 66.9 2
ADF % DM 37.7 36.7 38.7 2
Ether extract % DM 0.9 0.3 0.6 1.3 4
Ash % DM 19.0 7.1 10.4 27.8 4
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 15.2 0.9 13.3 15.2 3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.1 0.2 4.1 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.4 0.1 0.7 2
Sodium g/kg DM 0.4 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 62.0 1
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 58.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.9 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.2 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Holm, 1971; Moran et al., 1983; Suksombat, 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:24

References

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