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Sugarcane molasses

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Description
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Common names 

Molasses, sugarcane molasses, A molasses, B molasses, C molasses, syrup-off, integral molasses, unclarified molasses, high-test molasses [English]; mélasse, mélasse de canne [French]; melaza, miel de caña [Spanish]; molase [Indonesian]; melaço [Portuguese]; pulot, pulut, pulut-tubo [Tagalog]; melas [Turkish]; rỉ đường; rỉ mật, mật rỉ, mật rỉ đường [Vietnamese]; دبس السكر [Arabic]; 糖蜜 [Chinese]; शीरा [Hindi]; 糖蜜 [Japanese]; काकवी [Marathi]; меласса [Russian]; กากน้ำตาล [Thai]; راب&[Urdu]

Description 

Sugarcane molasses is a viscous, dark and sugar-rich by-product of sugar extraction from the sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). It is a major feed ingredient, used as an energy source and as a binder in compound feeds.

Process and products

Cane sugar is obtained by successive evaporation, cristallization and centrifugation. Both the sugar extraction process and the sugar refining process yield molasses, and each step of these processes output specific types of molasses. Pérez, 1995 has described the different molasses as follows:

  • Integral high-test molasses is produced from unclarified sugarcane juice. Because it is concentrated from unclarified sugarcane juice, heavy incrustations and scum deposits lead to frequent mill interruptions and, therefore, to increased factory maintenance costs.
  • High-test molasses is basically the same as integral high-test molasses. However, it does not raise as many problems in manufacture as integral high-test molasses does.
  • A molasses (first molasses) is an intermediate by-product resulting from first sugar crystal extraction (A sugar), from initial processing at the sugar factory. A molasses contains 80-85% DM. If it has to be stored, it should be inverted in order to prevent crystallization.
  • B molasses (second molasses). It has approximately the same DM content as A molasses but contains less sugar and does not spontaneously crystallize.
  • C molasses (final molasses, blackstrap molasses, treacle) is the end by-product of the processing in the sugar factory. It still contains considerable amounts of sucrose (approximately 32 to 42%). C molasses does not crystallize and can be found in liquid or dried form as a commercial feed ingredient. 
  • Syrup-off (liquor-off, jett) is the end by-product from the centrifugation of the final refined masecuite in a raw sugar refinery. Normally, syrup-off is sent to the raw sugar section of the refinery where it is further processed in order to recover more sucrose. Due to its high content of sucrose (90-92% DM), it is an excellent energy source for monogastrics but can be an expensive ingredient. 
  • Refinery final molasses is the by-product of refined sugar extraction. It has a very similar composition to that of C molasses produced in a raw sugar factory and it is stored in the same tanks.
  • In some countries the juice is extracted in a simple animal or mechanically driven press, then boiled in open vats. In this rudimentary process, pan (uncrystallized) sugar is produced and the by-product molasses is called "melote". It contains only 50% DM.

Sugarcane molasses is also used for alcohol production (rhum or fuel ethanol) and the distillery process yields vinasses that can also be used in animal feeding.

Approximately 3 to 7 tons of molasses can be produced from 100 tons of fresh sugar cane (Pérez, 1997). Molasses composition highly varies and depends on cane varieties, climate and processes. Approximately 60 countries produce sucrose from sugarcane (Pérez, 1995).

It should be noted that the type of molasses is rarely mentioned when molasses is traded or when its feed value is investigated.

Utilization

Sugarcane molasses has several important roles in livestock feeding, due to the nutritive, appetizing and physical properties of its sugar content. Molasses is difficult to handle because of its viscosity: it is rarely fed directly in its liquid form but instead mixed with other ingredients (Caldwell, 2001).

Binding agent, anti-dust agent and palatability enhancer

The main use of cane molasses is as a binding agent in feed mills. Molasses allows the feed granules to stick together during the pelleting process, which produces pellets that are less likely to break down during transportation and passage through feeding equipment. Molasses also reduces dustiness in fine-particled feeds. Due to its sucrose content, it improves the palatability of feeds and can even mask the bitter taste of urea (Blair, 2007). The amount used in dry feeds is usually small, lower than 15% DM and usually in the 2-5% range (Blair, 2007; Fuller, 2004).

Silage additive

Molasses is a valuable additive for silage making when ensiling conditions are difficult, or when the forage is a poor quality grass (warm-season grass) or a legume. Molasses provides readily fermentescible energy that promotes lactic acid bacteria development, subsequently reduces pH and improves silage quality. However, molasses may not be helpful when silage is made with maize, sorghum or cool-season grasses since they already contain high amounts of energy, and adding molasses might result in detrimental yeast development (Adesogan et al., 2010; Sansoucy, 1991). Molasses can be added to grass silage at about 5% (Fuller, 2004).

Urea carrier

Molasses, in either liquid or solid form, is often used as a carrier for urea and other additives (Pérez, 1995). Its can be combined with urea, minerals and vitamins to make solids bricks called molasses-urea blocks or multi-nutrient blocks, for instance to supplement low quality diets (see the Molasses/urea blocks datasheet) (Forsberg et al., 2002).

Energy source

Molasses can be used as an energy source for livestock, particularly in situations where grains are unavailable or too expensive (Chaudhary et al., 2001). This utilization is common for ruminants, but also occurs in pigs and poultry. Some countries, such as Cuba, have developed feeding systems where molasses has a central part. In ruminants, molasses is fed as a supplement to poor quality roughage, for example during periods of feed scarcity. It can also be mixed with rice bran, oil meals or with non-protein nitrogen (urea) in order to enhance rumen activity (Chaudhary et al., 2001; Bedingar et al., 1990; Rana et al., 1982). During the 1983-1985 famine in Ethiopia, molasses was used as an emergency feed for the survival of breeding cattle (Menbere, 1986).

Other uses

In the tropics, molasses is also used in combination with other ingredients, such as roughages, poultry litter or animal by-products. For example fresh fish, fish offal and snails can be preserved by mixing 50:50 with final molasses, then fed with B molasses to pigs, ducks and geese (Pérez, 1995).

Distribution 

The world production of sugarcane and beet molasses was 60 million t in 2007 (FAO statistics do not differentiate between both origins). The main producers were Brazil, India, China, Thailand, the United States, Pakistan, Mexico, Indonesia, Australia and the Russian Federation. 15 of those producers were located in tropical areas and accounted for 44 million t, which can be assumed to be sugarcane molasses. In 2007, 15.9 million t molasses (from sugar cane and sugar beet) were used to feed livestock. The main users were the United States (1.9 million t), China (1.8 million t), Brazil (1.3 million t), Indonesia, Argentina, India, Mexico, Vietnam, Australia and Iran (FAO, 2011).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Molasses usually fed to animals is a liquid viscous product containing 70-75% DM. From a nutritional point of view, it is primarily a source of energy, due to its high sugar content (60-70% DM). Syrup-off contains up to 90-92% DM sugar (Pérez, 1995). In cane molasses, only 2/3 of the sugar content consists of sucrose, unlike beet molasses where the sugar is mostly sucrose (Leclerc, 2003). Molasses is free of fat and fibre with a low nitrogen content. The crude protein equivalent is about 6%, half of which is non-protein N (Pérez, 1997; Le Dividich et al., 1978). The proportion of the non-sugar fraction increases from A to C molasses (Pérez, 1995). Sugarcane molasses is a rich source of minerals. The calcium content is quite high (about 0.9% DM) due to the addition of calcium hydroxide during processing. Cane molasses is also high in sodium, potassium and magnesium, and contains significant quantities of copper, zinc, iron and manganese. However, it is poor in phosphorus (less than 0.1% DM) and supplementation may be required. Molasses can be a good source of vitamins such as pantothenic acid, choline and niacin (Blair, 2007). The non-sugar fraction also contains soluble gums, organic acids (citric, malic) and unidentified compounds originating from different chemicals (electrolytes, formaldehyde, sulphur dioxide, hypochlorides, sodium bisulphite and also tensio-active compounds) added during the process of sugar extraction (Leclerc, 2003; Ly, 1989).

Potential constraints 

Neurological disorders

The world production of sugarcane and beet molasses was 60 million t in 2007 (FAO statistics do not differentiate between both origins). The main producers were Brazil, India, China, Thailand, the United States, Pakistan, Mexico, Indonesia, Australia and the Russian Federation. 15 of those producers were located in tropical areas and accounted for 44 million t, which can be assumed to be sugarcane molasses. In 2007, 15.9 million t molasses (from sugar cane and sugar beet) were used to feed livestock. The main users were the United States (1.9 million t), China (1.8 million t), Brazil (1.3 million t), Indonesia, Argentina, India, Mexico, Vietnam, Australia and Iran (FAO, 2011).

Other problems

In molasses-rich diets with cows grazing succulent pastures, scouring and bloating may occur (Ashwood, 2008). Rumen parakeratosis may also occur in animals fed high levels of molasses (Pate, 1983). Caution must be taken when the spring rains begin because if the molasses is diluted it will rapidly ferment into alcohol and may fatally poison the cattle (Pérez, 1995).

Potassium excess due to molasses can result in nephritis and diarrhoea (Leclerc, 2003).

Ruminants 

Sugarcane molasses is extensively used in feeding ruminant, both as a binder for compound feeds or to supply additional energy to the diet (Pate et al., 1989). It is usually mixed to the feed, but it may be sprayed on low quality roughage to improve its palatability and increase intake (Leclerc, 2003).

Recommendations

When used as an energy feed, for example to replace grain, moderate amounts of molasses are usually recommended (10-20% of the diet DM). Variable animal responses have been observed at these levels, depending on the relative proportions of the other diet ingredients (forage:concentrate ratio, starch content, etc.). For instance, in temperate areas, 10% molasses is recommended for animals fed energy-rich diets, but it is possible to include up to 15% if the diet contains straw or hay. The following inclusion rates have been proposed in Western Europe (Leclerc, 2003):

Animal Inclusion rates
Dairy cows 2-3 kg/d
Steers, heifers 0.25-0.5 kg/d for animals up to 200 kg LW
1-2 kg/d for animals over 200 kg
Ewes 0.6 kg/d
Lambs 0.2 kg/d

Many studies showed equal or greater animal performance when molasses was substituted for maize grain (Morales et al., 1989). When molasses accounts for less than 20% of the total DM intake, their carbohydrates contribution tends to be complementary, rather than competitive with the others ingredients of the diets (Preston, 1986). Small amounts of molasses in a roughage-based diet stimulate rumen fermentation and the rumen cellulolytic potential is maintained or improved with low quality forage diets. For instance, an early study in Australia with Friesian and Jersey cows, grazing irrigated and N-fertilized pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha), found that supplementation with molasses/urea raised milk yield by an average of 0.67 kg milk/kg molasses with Friesians, and 0.39 kg milk/kg molasses with Jerseys. Molasses supplementation generally increased lactation length and the percentage of non-fat solids in the milk (Chopping et al., 1976). In a study with growing tropical bulls fed rice straw, the best growth (982 g/d vs. 682 g/d) was obtained with 15% molasses + urea; however, 30% molasses depressed growth. 10% molasses improved the daily gain of animals fed rice straw and a grass-legume mixture (Huque et al., 1995). When fed alone to cattle or mixed with only 3% urea, the palatability of molasses is not affected and therefore it should be restricted to 2-3 kg/d. If used as a carrier for higher concentrations of urea, the bitterness of the urea serves as an auto-regulator causing the cattle to consume about 1 kg/d (Pérez, 1995).

Higher amounts of molasses (above 20%) in the diet can be detrimental to animal response, particularly in the lactating dairy cow. Rumen turnover increases, possibly due to higher intakes caused by better palatability. Molasses can depress performance in comparison to isoenergetic grain-based concentrates, and reduction in milk yield or milk fat yield has been observed in cows fed 15 to 22% (diet DM) molasses (Granzin et al., 2005). As stated above, with the bull study 30% molasses depressed growth (Huque et al., 1995). Depression in the efficiency of metabolic energy utilisation for net energy has been observed. This has been attributed to modifications in the production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen, resulting in reduced fibre digestion and lower forage intake (Granzin et al., 2005). Competition between the faster-growing amylolytic bacteria in the rumen and cellulolytic micro-organisms results in a decrease in the number of cellulolytic micro-organisms present, leading to a reduction in fibre digestion. Inclusion of large amounts of molasses is not always negative: in a study with crossbred steers fed cottonseed meal and hay, including up to 30% molasses (diet DM; 2.8 kg/d DM of molasses) resulted in an increased rate of growth (850 g/d vs. 540 g/d). However, the daily gains obtained with molasses were lower than those obtained with the same proportion of soybean hulls or maize grain (Royes et al., 2001).

Nitrogen supplementation

Molasses is deficient in nitrogen and, therefore, N supplementation is often required to optimize rumen fermentation and to provide by-pass protein to balance the nutrients available for the animal's metabolism. Adding urea to molasses is a common method to improve its nitrogen status (Preston, 1986).

A number of trials have shown that molasses-based liquid supplements containing urea tend to be inferior to supplements providing natural protein. However, in tropical regions, liquid supplements formulated with urea can be less expensive and economically advantageous (Kalmbacher et al., 1995). Urea has to account for 2.5% of the fresh weight of molasses to provide the ratio of fermentable nitrogen to carbohydrates required for the efficient growth of rumen micro-organisms. No toxicity is observed up to 3% urea in the fresh molasses (Preston, 1986), but 8-10% results in a decrease in feed intake. To prevent urea toxicity, the equivalent crude protein from non-protein nitrogen in a molasses-based feed should not exceed 15% of total crude protein, unless it is a formula that limits intake (Pate et al., 1989).

Nitrogen supplementation is not always required. Feeding molasses to cattle grazing green pasture with a high nitrogen content is beneficial and does not necessitate additional fermentable nitrogen (Preston et al., 1987).

Minerals

The sulfur content of molasses is high and may antagonize liver tissue accumulation of Se in cattle. A daily intake of 2.5 mg of supplemental Se from sodium selenite or selenite yeast sources would be needed for cattle consuming sugarcane molasses (Arthington, 2008).

As molasses is deficient in phosphorus, it is necessary to add phosphoric acid to the mixture or provide livestock with mineral supplementation (Pérez, 1995).

Molasses are rich in potassium and should not be mixed with other potassium-rich ingredients such as whey (Leclerc, 2003).

Example of utilization in Cuba

A commercial beef fattening system, developed and used in Cuba since the 1970s, is based on free-choice final molasses mixed with 3% urea, restricted fish meal or another protein source, restricted forage (3% LW) and a free-choice mineral mix of 50% dicalcium phosphate and salt. The molasses/urea mixture, which represents about 70% of the total diet DM, contains 91% final molasses and 6.5% water. Urea and salt are first dissolved in water before being mixed with the molasses; this mix is top-dressed, once daily, generally with 70 g of bypass-protein (fish meal) per 100 kg LW. In a large feedlot operation, the daily ration/head is calculated as follows: 90 g mineral mix, 250 g fish meal, 6 kg molasses/urea and 10 kg forage. The average daily gain ranges between 0.8 and 1 kg/d. However, under average feedlot conditions the gains are between 0.7 and 0.8 kg/d. Although molasses can completely replace cereals in a beef feedlot operation, such is not the case with milk production, particularly with high producing dairy cows. In this case, the molasses/milk system does not perform adequately. It has been postulated that the problem could be one of insufficient glucose precursors related to the digestion of the molasses, particularly since the demand for this nutrient is greater in milk than in beef (Pérez, 1995).

Pigs 

Sugarcane molasses is normally used as a binder but can also partly replace cereal grains in pig diets. The ME content of sugarcane is about 12.5-13.5 MJ/kg DM (Noblet et al., 2002; Figueroa et al., 1990b; Rostagno et al., 2005), which represents 78-84% of the ME of maize expressed on a DM basis but only 66-74% of that value when expressed on a fresh matter basis. It may be negatively affected by the ash content.

Even though molasses is very palatable to pigs, high inclusion rates are not recommended. Not only is molasses difficult to handle and to mix with other ingredients, but it may cause diarrhoea and can be detrimental to performance, including feed conversion ratio, energy digestibility and N retention (Le Dividich et al., 1974). Molasses has been tested in many trials in Latin America and Southern Asia. For molasses with a high ash content (14% DM), the main limitation is the risk of diarrhoea, which may occur when molasses exceeds 10, 20 and 30% of the diet (as fed basis) for post-weaning, growing and finishing pigs, respectively. Diarrhoea in pigs fed molasses-rich diets was reduced or eliminated by adding an adsorbing fibrous material such as bagasse pith or bran to the diet (Brooks et al., 1967). Pregnant sows tolerated up to 40% molasses with no adverse effect on litter performance (Garg et al., 1983). Due to its laxative effect, molasses can be used at 10 to 20% of the diet to correct problems of constipation in sows at farrowing time (Blair, 2007). In Cuba, gestating sows have been fed B molasses, which was included in 3 basic fattening rations (% of the diet DM):

  • Treated organic wastes (33%), dry ration (33%) and B molasses (33%);
  • Protein supplement (53%) and B molasses (47%);
  • B molasses (70%) and Torula yeast cream (30%) (Pérez, 1995).

Trials in Cuba, Santo Domingo and Mexico have shown that cereal grains can be completely replaced in the diet with high-test molasses (with low ash), without detrimental effects on growth in growing and finishing pigs. High-test molasses had a limited laxative effect (Castro et al., 1990; Figueroa et al., 1990a; Mederos et al., 1990; Gonzalez et al., 1993; Diaz et al., 2002).

Poultry 

Molasses is typically used as a binder in dry poultry diets, but its use as an energy source has also been investigated. Poultry, particularly geese and ducks, can be fattened on liquid diets containing up to 60% DM of molasses, preferably high-test, A or B molasses (Göhl, 1982). Lower inclusion rates (less than 25% DM) generally seem preferable, for both practical and economic reasons (Göhl, 1982; Rosenberg, 1955).

Broilers

Early research showed that sugarcane molasses could be used up to more than 30% in broiler diets. However, high levels of molasses tend to cause sticky droppings and caked litter (Rosenberg, 1955). Very high inclusion rates, between 40 and 60%, may depress performance (Rahim et al., 1999) or cause diarrhoea in broilers (Savon et al., 1983). Feeds including large amounts of molasses should be pelleted and dehydrated, though this may decrease the cost-effectiveness of molasses (Rosenberg, 1955).

In Cuba, several trials have shown that completely replacing maize with high-test molasses in broiler diets between 18 and 42 days maintained or improved performance (meat yield, organoleptic properties) while increasing cost-effectiveness (Hidalgo et al., 2005; Valdivie et al., 2004). Many trials have successfully tested molasses at moderate inclusion rates. In India, molasses was added in broiler mash at up to 10% (replacing maize grain) without affecting performance, but adding molasses directly in the drinking water (2-3% v/v) depressed body weight (Reddy et al., 1998). In Egypt, chicks raised on sand or wheat straw and supplemented with 4% molasses gave a better performance than chicks reared on wheat straw only (El-Sagheer, 2006). In Nigeria, broilers fed 15% molasses in the diet performed better (growth, final weight, nutrient digestibility) than animals fed lower amounts or no molasses (Njidda et al., 2006). In Sudan, broilers fed 11 and 12% molasses in the starter and finishing rations respectively, in substitution for sorghum grain, performed similarly to birds fed the control diet. Molasses included at 39 and 42% in the starter and finishing rations significantly decreased feed intake, increased live weight gain, feed efficiency and the dressed carcass percentage (Rahim et al., 1999).

Laying hens

High levels of molasses have been suggested for laying hens (Soldevila et al., 1976). In India, laying hens fed 7.5 to 30% molasses (replacing maize grain) gave the best laying performance (hen-day production, total mass of eggs, cost of feed/12 eggs) at 22.5% molasses in the diet. Feed efficiency decreased at 30% but was still higher than for the control diet (Sharma et al., 1973). In Bengladesh, molasses was included at up to 5% (replacing wheat grain) in the diet of laying pullets with no effect on growth and laying performance (Rahman et al., 1991).

Geese

It was possible to feed six-week-old goslings for 8 weeks with a diet containing 62% molasses (instead of 77% maize grain) but weight gain and feed efficiency were higher for the maize-based diet (Valdivie et al., 1974).

Rabbits 

Sugarcane molasses is one of the most common ingredients of commercial rabbit feeds. For example it was used in 93 out of 95 French commercial feeds studied by Lebas et al., 1984. The incorporation level was generally comprised between 3 and 5%. In the papers presented at the 9th World Rabbit Congress in 2008, sugarcane molasses was included in 15 of the 58 control diets with an average inclusion rate of 2.8% and a maximum of 5% (Lebas et al., 2009). The main purpose of using sugarcane or beet molasses in commercial rabbit feeds is to improve the pelleting process and the palatability of pellets. However, the presence of molasses in balanced rabbit diets does not have nutritional benefits. For example in a study carried out in Benin, the incorporation of molasses at 5% in the diet of young growing rabbits did not improve average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake and mortality rate (Kpodékon et al., 2008). Besides, including more than 5-6% molasses in pellets is detrimental to their quality as pellets become too fragile (Thomas et al., 2001).

Several trials have investigated the concept of introducing a high proportion of molasses, from 25 to 50%, in non-pelleted feeds fed to rabbits, in the form of blocks of 0.5-1 kg, mixed with 3 to 10% of cement or lime (Dinh Van Binh et al., 1991; Balestra et al., 1992; Amici et al., 1995; Linga et al., 2000; Doan Thi Gang et al., 2006; Mudunuru et al., 2008). Those blocks are well accepted by rabbits if they are not too hard. Nutritional efficiency depends on the other ingredients included in the blocks (cereal grains or their by-products, oil meals, forages, etc.) or included in the diet. The results show that high proportions of dietary molasses can be efficiently used by rabbits. However, the high moisture content causes problems of mold after very short term storage. Thorough drying requires at least 2 or 3 days in an electric oven (at 60 or 54°C respectively), or 3 to 6 days of sun-drying (Finzi et al., 1996; Linga et al., 2000; Nouel et al., 2003). Crumbs containing a lower proportion of molasses (10-15%) are well accepted by rabbits but drying is also required (Finzi et al., 1996; Linga et al., 2000).

Horses and donkeys 

Horses can be fed 1.5-2 kg/d molasses (about 10-15% of the diet DM) (Leclerc, 2003).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 73.0 1.8 67.8 79.0 3254
Crude protein % DM 5.5 1.4 2.1 9.3 1450
Crude fibre % DM 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 8
NDF % DM 0.8 0.9 0.2 2.8 10
ADF % DM 0.5 0.7 0.0 2.5 11
Lignin % DM 0.3 0.5 0.1 1.5 11
Ether extract % DM 1.0 0.9 0.0 2.5 19
Ash % DM 14.6 2.8 8.2 19.3 1839
Total sugars % DM 64.1 3.7 54.8 78.6 2327
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 14.7 0.6 14.7 16.5 7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 9.2 1.3 6.8 12.6 109
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.7 0.2 0.1 1.2 115
Potassium g/kg DM 51.0 13.1 27.7 77.3 167
Sodium g/kg DM 2.4 1.0 1.0 5.4 119
Magnesium g/kg DM 4.0 1.1 2.4 6.0 32
Manganese mg/kg DM 74 29 22 121 13
Zinc mg/kg DM 18 18 4 77 14
Copper mg/kg DM 6 6 2 22 14
Iron mg/kg DM 173 45 123 277 11
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.5 1
Arginine % protein 0.6 1
Aspartic acid % protein 22.0 1
Cystine % protein 1.2 1
Glutamic acid % protein 10.0 1
Glycine % protein 1.9 1
Histidine % protein 0.3 1
Isoleucine % protein 0.6 1
Leucine % protein 1.2 1
Lysine % protein 0.1 1
Methionine % protein 0.3 1
Phenylalanine % protein 0.4 1
Proline % protein 1.2 1
Serine % protein 1.9 1
Threonine % protein 1.2 1
Tyrosine % protein 1.9 1
Valine % protein 3.8 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 79.7 1
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 76.6 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.6 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 43.1 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 90.0 9.6 77.1 96.0 3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.3 2.0 11.4 16.6 5 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.0 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.2 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 13.0 *
 
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 91.6 *
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 13.5 1
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 13.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 67.9 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Ahmed et al., 1983; Alvarez, 1977; Bayley et al., 1983; Bredon, 1957; CIRAD, 1991; DePeters et al., 2000; Figueroa et al., 1990; Hindrichsen et al., 2004; Kamra et al., 1989; Kik, 1960; Le Dividich et al., 1974; Maertens et al., 1985; Mee et al., 1979; Nadeem et al., 2005; Noblet et al., 1989; Perez et al., 1970; Reddy, 1997; Shi et al., 1993; Steg et al., 1985; Unsworth et al., 1976

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:36

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 75.0 1
Crude protein % DM 0.8 1
Crude fibre % DM 0.0 1
Ether extract % DM 0.0 1
Ash % DM 1.3 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.1 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 11.5 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.7 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 90.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.4 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Figueroa et al., 1990

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:09

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., Lebas F., Lessire M., Archimède H., Renaudeau D., 2015. Sugarcane molasses. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/561 Last updated on May 27, 2015, 9:38

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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