Support Feedipedia

Automatic translation

Who is visiting Feedipedia?


Editor area

Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora)

Description and recommendations

Common names

Mesquite, meskit, ironwood, cashaw, bayarone, algaroba, prosópis, algarroba, algarrobo, cují negro, trupillo, sudjoe, vilayati kikar, kabuli kikar, vilayati babul (USDA, 2010; Ecocrop, 2010)

Taxonomic information

Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis pallida are generally similar in terms of flower, pod and leaf morphology as well as tree form. With naturally occurring hybridisation, it is actually difficult to differentiate between these two species (Pasiecznik et al., 2001). Also, there is still some confusion regarding the Prosopis species imported to Sudan in the early 20th century, as trees believed to be Prosopis chilensis in Sudan (and now in many African countries) are now considered to be Prosopis juliflora. A similar taxonomical error happened in Peru and more notably in Hawaii, where Prosopis chilensis trees are now identified as Prosopis juliflora or Prosopis pallida (or hybrids). As a consequence, many past research in Africa and Hawaii concerning Prosopis chilensis may be about other Prosopis species (Gabar, 1988; Pasiecznik et al., 2001).


Mimosa juliflora Sw., Prosopis horrida Kunth, Prosopis vidaliana Náves


Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC), one of the 44 species of Prosopis, is an evergreen leguminous tree, typical of arid and semi-arid regions, growing up to 10-15 m high. The crown is large and the canopy is open. Mesquite is a phreatophyte (Ecoport, 2010; Riveros, 1992) and has a deep taproot, growing downwards in search of water tables (down to 35 m depth), with well-developed lateral roots competing with grasses. The stems are green-brown, twisted and flexible. They have long and strong thorns (1.2-5 cm long), though some varieties are thornless. Leaves are pinnately compound with 13-25 pairs leaflets arranged on 1 or sometimes 2 pairs of pendulous rachis. Leaflets are oblong (3-16 mm long x 1.5-3 mm broad) (Ecoport, 2010; FAO, 2010). Flowers are light greenish-yellow, arranged in cylindrical spikes 5-10 cm long and 1.5 cm wide. Fruits are flattened, curved, indehiscent pods (4 mm thick, 1-1.5 cm wide and 15-20 cm long) (Ecoport, 2010). Pods are straw-coloured and contain a fleshy and sugary mesocarp (Göhl, 1982). The pods contain 10-20 seeds that are 2-8 mm long (FAO, 2010). There is a wide range of mesquite varieties.

Prosopis juliflora and its close relative Prosopis pallida are two of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in arid and semi-arid zones of the world. The Prosopis juliflora - Prosopis pallida complex provides many of the needs of poor rural populations living in tropical dry zones. However, it is also extremely invasive and often considered as the scourge of ranchers and pastoralists (Pasiecznik et al., 2001). Mesquite wood is a good firewood (it is also called “wooden anthracite”) and produces high-quality charcoal (NAS, 1980). It is also used for windows, doors and light carpentry (Ecocrop, 2010). Stems contain a gum similar to arabic gum. Mesquite was one of the earliest legume food used by humans (Gutteridge et al., 1994). In Central America, numerous food preparations are made out of mesquite: bread, syrup, sweets and sweeteners, alcoholic beverages and a sort of coffee (Gutteridge et al., 1994). The availability of pods worldwide was estimated to be about 2-4 million t in 2003 (Sawal et al., 2004).

The protein and sugar-rich pods are used as fodder and their value is all the more important as they are available during dry periods (van der Maesen et al., 1997). Mesquite foliage is well accepted by wildlife and livestock but the green leaves are not very palatable and the cattle eat only the buds. Direct browsing of the foliage may limit tree development (Mendes, 1988).


Mesquite is thought to have originated from Peru, Chile and Argentina and to have spread to Mexico and the southern USA. It was later introduced into North-East Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Uruguay, Venezuela, the West Indies and the Bahamas. Now, it is distributed between 35°N and 4°S throughout Western Asia, Africa and arid and semi-arid regions in the Americas, from the Southwestern United States to Central Chile and Argentina (Ecoport, 2010; Silva, 1988b).

Mesquite is xerophytic and is adapted to many soil types under a wide range of moisture conditions (Orwa et al., 2009). It is found from sea level up to 2900 m altitude (Ecocrop, 2010). Optimal growth conditions are mean annual temperatures ranging from 14°C to 34°C (Ecoport, 2010), average annual rainfall from 50 mm to 1200 mm (Ecoport, 2010) and deep soils (Nair, 1993).

    The value of the tree lies in its exceptional tolerance of heat, drought (8 months and even longer) and marginal soils. It tolerates strongly saline soils or alkaline soils. It also withstands seasonal waterlogging (Orwa et al., 2009). It is sensitive to cold weather and frost. Droughts during flowering periods may affect flower and pods production (Ecoport, 2010). Irrigation during flowering periods triples or quadruples pods yields in Brazil (Riveros, 1992).

    Forage management

    Pods production begins 3 years after planting. Pods yields may be as high as 10 t/ha/year, average pods yields are 8.7 t/ha/year in the USA and 6 t/ha/year, after 4 years, in Brazil (under good fertilization conditions) where maize average yields only reach 400 kg/ha (Riveros, 1992). The average yield per tree is about 10-50 kg pods/year and can be collected from May-June and September-October (Sawal et al., 2004).

    Pod harvest is an easy but costly manual operation. Pods are stored in wood-lined or brick-built houses or in layers of sand ("colca") (Silva, 1988a). Pods may be stored for several years but are very prone to insect attack, requiring treatment of the storage houses with insecticidal dust or fumigation (Ffolliot et al., 1983).

    Environmental impact

    Mesquite is a N-fixing legume. Its roots are infected by cowpea-type Rhizobium and are also forming mycorrhizal associations with Glomus fungi. N-fixing rate increases when both mycorrhize and Rhizobium associations are present. A 6 m x 6 m mesquite plantation can fix about 30-40 kg N2 ha/year (Orwa et al., 2009) and may subsequently be intercropped with maize or with Cenchrus ciliaris L., Megathyrsus maximus Jacq. and Opuntia spp. (van der Maesen et al., 1997).

    Mesquite provides shade and shelter and is used in windbreaks and shelterbelts, but it should be avoided in irrigated areas since it is a potential host to pathogenic nematodes (Ecoport, 2010). Thanks to its ability to grow on saline and alkaline soils, mesquite is valued as soil reclaimer in very poor, degraded lands, rocky soils or abandonned copper mines. It is also useful for stabilizing dunes on coastal zones and bunds around mangrove creeks (van der Maesen et al., 1997). Mesquite has an overall positive effect on soil: N, sulphur, organic matter and soluble salts are increased threefold within the upper 4.5 m of soil under mesquite (Ecoport, 2010).

    In spite of these qualities, mesquite is considered as a noxious weed in many parts of the world, since it naturalizes easily and competes strongly with other species when introduced into areas where soils are better and climate is more humid (USDA, 2010; Ecoport, 2010; Ecocrop, 2010; van der Maesen et al., 1997). In Rajasthan (India), sheep farmers have to face the problem of the infestation by Prosopis juliflora bushes of grazing areas that are already scarce (Dinesh et al., 2003). It is possible to control mesquite by regular pruning and turn it into a valuable tree that is less agressive to grasses or crops. Removing the poorly nutritive side branches results in smaller roots and more efficient water utilization (Elfadl et al., 2003). Grazing of mesquite stands is another way to control its growth (Riveros, 1992).

    Potential constraints

    Mesquite pods contain cytotoxic alkaloids that may cause intoxications to cattle, horses, sheep and goats in diets containing high levels of pods (>50 %). Problems have been reported in the USA, Peru and Brazil (Silva et al., 2007; Tabosa et al., 2006; Camara et al., 2009; Assis et al., 2010). Poisonings were also recorded from pods eaten after exposure to rain (Göhl, 1982).

    Goats and cattle fed with diets containing 60-90 % and 50-75 % mesquite pods respectively suffered mandibular tremors during chewing due to toxicity to neurons of certain cranial nerve nuclei (Tabosa et al., 2000; Tabosa et al., 2006). In another series of outbreaks in Brazil, the main clinical signs were progressive weight loss, atrophy of the masseter muscles, dropped jaw, tongue protrusion, difficulties in prehending food, tilting the head during mastigation or rumination, salivation, impaired swallowing, and decreased tone of the tongue (Camara et al., 2009). Neuronal lesions result in difficulties in prehending and chewing; it subsequently causes feed wastes and animal death (Tabosa et al., 2006). In India, goats offfered dry mesquite pods as sole feed during 4 days suffered from partial anorexia, depression, salivation, twitching, dehydration and bloody diarrhoea. Mesquite had deleterious effects on heamoglobin, ruminal pH, ruminal bacterial count and caused total ruminal protozoa disappearance. There was a significant decline in blood pH and increase in blood urea nitrogen. Histopathological studies revealed necrotic lesions in the liver, degenerative changes in renal tubules and rarefaction of lymphoid tissue (Misri et al., 2003).

    Nutritional attributes

    Pods, seeds and pod husks

    Mesquite pods have a relatively high nutritional value. They contain about 10-15 % DM of crude protein, 20-30 % DM of crude fibre and 16-41 % of total sugars (75 % saccharose) (Sawal et al., 2004). Pod composition is quite variable and pods from India and Africa appear to have lower levels of desirable carbohydrates and higher levels of unwanted fibre than pods from Peru and Brazil (Pasiecznik et al., 2001). The sugar content make them palatable to ruminants, pigs, poultry, equines and other animals (Sawal et al., 2004).

    The seeds contain up to 30-40 % protein and much less fibre (3-7 %) than the pods (Sawal et al., 2004).

    Pod husks have also been occasionnally used as feed. They are poor in protein (4 % DM) and rich in crude fibre (54 % DM) (Mathur et al., 2002; Russell, 1947).


    Fresh leaves contain about 17-20 % protein and 22 % crude fibre (Lima, 1994). They are rich in lysine but deficient in methionine and cystine (van der Maesen et al., 1997). The hay contains about 14 % protein (Mendes, 1988).



    Mesquite pods are palatable feeds and good sources of energy for ruminants due to their digestible carbohydrate content. They can replace part of the diet grains (Sawal et al., 2004).

    In many areas, cattle, sheep and goats browse the pods in the fields, snatching them before they drop or picking up the dry ones from the ground. The animals can also graze the dry grasses of low nutritive value found within the mesquite stand (Silva, 1988a; Pasiecznik et al., 1995). The pods can also be collected and fed to stalled livestock, whole or processed, alone or as part of a ration and fresh or after storage. Processed pods are more digestible and ground pods habve a better nutrtional value. Processing involves the pounding, grinding or milling of pods, either as a single process producing a whole pod extract, or with some separation of pod parts and further processing of each fraction. Processing usually involves milling of whole pods into a homogeneous, coarse flour, although in some cases exocarp and mesocarp (pulp) are separated from the endocarp and seed (Pasiecznik et al., 2001).

    Studies show that cattle rations containing less than 50% Prosopis juliflora pods lead to no adverse effects on consumption, digestibility, nutrient balance and animal health (Pasiecznik et al., 2001). Lower inclusion rates of 15-25 % are recommended in sheep and goats. In all ruminants species, inclusion rates higher than 50-60 % may cause toxicity problems due to the presence of cytotoxic alkaloids (See Caution).


    Early trials found that Prosopis juliflora pods were highly digestible. Reported values in Peru were 83 and 80 % for DM and protein respectively (Azevedo, 1961 cited by Barros et al., 1988). In Brazil, values of 71 % (DM), 70 % (energy) and 67 % (crude protein) were observed in sheep (Barbosa, 1977 cited by Barros et al., 1988).

    Dairy cattle

    Rations containing Prosopis pods have been recommended for lactating animals and have be said to increase milk production. No effects on milk flavour were noted at less than 50% pods in the ration, though as a sole feed some taste change has been suggested (Pasiecznik et al., 2001). A report from the 1950s mentioned that pods were used in concentrate rations for dairy cows at 40-60 % inclusion rates in Peru, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay. Another report claimed that pods were particularly used in dairy rations in Hawai, where it replaced concentrates such as cottonseed meal (Silva, 1988a). In Brazil, Prosopis juliflora pod flour could replace up to 60 % of wheat bran in rations for lactating cows and that DM intake, weight gain and milk production increased with increasing proportion of pod flour. The most economic ration was the one with 60 % mesquite pod replacing wheat bran (Nobre, 1981, cited by Silva, 1988a). In Colombia, the use of mesquite pods reduced the postpartum interval and increased the weight in dual-purpose cows (Roncallo, 2002). In India, inclusion of up to 30 % pods in the diet maintained dairy performance (Talpada et al., 1988).

    Beef and growing cattle

    In Brazil, total replacement of wheat bran by ground pods was found favourable for beef cattle (Silva, 1988a). Several trials in India have shown that the inclusion of Prosopis juliflora pods could sustain cattle growth. Diets containing up to 45% Prosopis juliflora pods (1.5 % of body weight) gave acceptable liveweight gains (Shukla et al., 1984). Prosopis juliflora pods could be fed to 9-month crossbred heifers up to 20 % in the diet (replacing rice polishings) without adverse effect on growth and reproductive performances (Pandya et al., 2005). Similar results were obtained at 20 % level in growing crossbred calves (Talpada et al., 2002).


    Many trials have found that part of the grains or forage in sheep diets could be replaced efficiently with mesquite pods (Obeidat et al., 2008). In Mexico, Prosopis juliflora pod flour could replace up to 45 % of sorghum grain while increasing weight gain and was cost-effective at that substitution rate. 60 % substitution had a depressive effect on gain (Buzo et al., 1972, cited by Silva, 1988a). In Jordan, feeding fattening Awassi lambs diets containing up to 20 % (replacing barley) did not affect growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat characteristics while being cost effective (Obeidat et al., 2008). A similar study found that nutrient intake, digestibility, growth rate, and feed efficiency improved when pods were included at 15-25 % (replacing barley and maize grain) but that animal performance decreased when pods were included at 35-45 % in the diet (Abdullah et al., 2004). In Brazil, replacement of 30 % and 45 % of sugarcane molasses by mesquite pods gave the highest weight gains (Barros, 1981, cited by Silva, 1988a).

    Grinding and heating had not effect on voluntary intake of mesquite pods fed alone, but ground pods associated with Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were eaten in greater volume than whole pods (Barbosa, 1977, cited by Silva, 1988a). In Northeast Brazil, mesquite pods was found to be a very practical and economical option for feeding sheep in the dry season (Oliveira, 2009). The substitution of Napier grass silage by up to 45 % mesquite pods had a positive effect on DM intake, weight gain and economic performance (Almeida et al., 2008).


    Prosopis juliflora pods have been tested in arid zone countries to feed goats. In Oman, a diet containing 20 % pods improved feed intake, feed conversion and body weight gain without compromising carcass yield or quality. However, intake and gain dropped sharply when pods where included at 30 % (Mahgoub et al., 2005b). In the drylands of India, up to 35 % mesquite pod flour included in the diet of goats in late lactation maintained weight gain, blood parameters and milk yield (Mathur et al., 2003).

    Pod husks

    In arid regions of India, Prosopis juliflora pod husks could be included at 50 % in the concentrate (with colocyinth seed cake (Citrullus colocynthis)) fed to Marwari sheep without adverse effect on animal health (Mathur et al., 2002).


    Foliage of Prosopis juliflora is generally unpalatable, which severely limits its use as fodder. However, animals will browse the foliage during dry seasons or droughts when no other forage sources are available. The palatability in decreasing order is goats (more palatable) > sheep > camels > horses (unpalatable). This unpalatability may be caused by the presence of condensed tannins. It increases with leaf age and low-tannin leaf buds and young leaves are more palatable. Dry, fallen leaves appear to regain some palatability, and livestock, particularly goats, are often seen foraging under tree canopies. Leaves have been mixed with other feeds as a cheap supplement to decrease feed costs while maintaining intake and live weight gains (Pasiecznik et al., 2001). In India, incorporation of Prosophis juliflora foliage was possible but reduced intake at levels above 10% of the total feed (Shukla et al., 1984 cited by Pasiecznik et al., 2001).

    Several authors have reported in the past that Prosopis juliflora leaves are highly digestible. However, recent in vitro DM digestibility data are in the 56-59 % range (Lima, 1994; Pasiecznik et al., 2001).


    There are few references about the use of mesquite pods and seed flour in pig feeding. Seeds and seed flour seem to be a better feed than pods.


    More than 10 % of ground dried mesquite pods in post weaning piglets had detrimental effects on growth rate and the feed conversion ratio linearly increased with the inclusion rate of the pods (Silva et al., 1988).


    Pigs fed on rations containing 70% sun-dried seeds in Hawaii gained 595 g/day (Göhl, 1982). Mesquite flour included at up to 50% in growing finishing pigs had no effect on growth performance and carcass quality (Lima Filho et al., 1998).



    A maximum incorporation level of 20 % has been reported by several studies. Mesquite pods could partially replace maize and could be offered up to 20 % in the diet (with enzyme supplementation). 30 % increased the feed conversion ratio and the feed cost per kg (Choudhary et al., 2005). Broilers fed a diets containing 20 % had the highest live body weight, body weight gain and the best feed conversion (Al-beitawi et al., 2010). A 10 % inclusion rate did not have any adverse effects on performance in starter and finisher diets (Vanker et al., 1998)

    Laying hens

    7.5-14 % mesquite pods are recommended in layer diets. Mesquite pod meal was used to replace up to 100% of wheat bran (7.5 % of the diet) in rations for laying hens with no effect on intake, feed conversion ratio or egg weight (Riveros, 1992). The inclusion of mesquite pod meal up to 13.6% in isonitrogen and isoenergy diets did not adversely affect laying hens performance, but a 30 % inclusion level reduced egg and mass weights and affected feed to egg mass ratio. A TME value of 11.8 MJ/kg DM was determined (Silva et al., 2002b).

    Laying quails

    Mesquite pod meal could be included up to 15% in partial maize replacement of isonitrogen and isoenergy diets without an adverse effect on laying hens quail performance. A 25 % inclusion level reduced feed intake and egg mass (Silva et al., 2002a).


    Little information exists about the use of mesquite in rabbits. It was possible to use mesquite pods up to 25% without problems in the diets of growing rabbits (Castillo Guerrero, 1979). In a trial where ground pods and pericaps were both included at 30%, DM digestibility was rather low for pods (45 %) and higher for the pericarp (67 %) while protein digestibility was high and similar for both products (72 and 76 % respectively). N-corrected ME was 7.7 MJ/kg DM for pods and 12.0 MJ/kg DM for the pericarp (Silva et al., 1990). 

    Horses and donkeys

    Mesquite pods are well appreciated by horses and mules, who can consume between 2 to 6 kg/day or 1.2 kg/100 kg W. Mesquite pod meal could replace 100% of maize cob meal (75 % of diet DM) in mares without altering DM intake, though NDF digestibility was affected (Stein et al., 2005).


    Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    Hydrothermically processed Prosopis juliflora seed meal fed to rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings resulted in better growth than raw seed meal. However, diets where 50% of fish meal were replaced by mesquite seed meal depressed growth, carcass composition, digestive enzyme activity and digestibility even when the seeds were processed by soaking or autoclaving, so mesquite seed meal should be incorporated in rohu diets at inclusion levels lower than 30 % (Bhatt et al., 2010).

    Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum)

    Mesquite pod meal could replace 25 to 100 % of maize grain in the diets of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fingerlings without generally affecting growth performance. However, while the 50 % substitution was the most cost-effective, using mesquite pod meal was economically impractical compared to maize grain (Miranda et al., 2009).

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Mequite pod meal is a valuable feed for tilapias. Mesquite pod meal could replace the 75 % of maize grain in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry without affecting animal performance (Lima et al., 2009). A diet supplemented with 60 g/kg of mesquite pods improved growth performances, feed and nutrients utilization, and whole body composition (dry matter, protein and energy content) in Nile tilapia fry (Mabrouk et al., 2008).

    Other species


    Prosopis juliflora is a valuable honey plant: bees are fond of mesquite flowers and the flowering lasts almost year-round (van der Maesen et al., 1997; FAO, 2010).


    Heuzé V., Tran G., Boval M., Renaudeau D., 2013. Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora). A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Last updated on November 28, 2013, 14:15


    Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

    Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    Crude protein % DM 7.7 1
    Crude fibre % DM 12.0 1
    Ether extract % DM 0.6 1
    Ash % DM 2.3 1
    Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.0 *
    Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    Energy digestibility, growing pig % 71.3 *
    DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.8 *

    The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


    Imperial Bureau of Animal Nutrition, 1936

    Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:34

    Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    Dry matter % as fed 36.7 32.2 41.2 2
    Crude protein % DM 16.9 4.6 11.7 20.1 3
    Crude fibre % DM 26.9 9.0 21.6 37.3 3
    Ether extract % DM 3.1 0.5 2.7 3.6 3
    Ash % DM 8.9 1.4 7.7 10.5 3
    Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.4 *
    Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    Calcium g/kg DM 17.0 4.7 11.7 20.8 3
    Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.0 0.3 1.7 2.2 3
    Potassium g/kg DM 15.1 14.1 16.0 2
    Magnesium g/kg DM 4.2 2.3 6.0 2
    Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    OM digestibility, Ruminant % 68.3 *
    Energy digestibility, ruminants % 65.3 *
    DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.0 *
    ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.6 *

    The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


    CIRAD, 1991; Russell, 1947

    Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:34

    Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    Crude protein % DM 4.3 1
    Crude fibre % DM 54.3 1
    Ether extract % DM 0.6 1
    Ash % DM 3.4 1
    Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.2 *
    Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    OM digestibility, Ruminant % 76.9 *
    Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    Energy digestibility, growing pig % 4.8 *
    DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 0.9 *

    The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


    Imperial Bureau of Animal Nutrition, 1936

    Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:35

    Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
    Dry matter % as fed 94.1 1.8 92.7 97.2 5  
    Crude protein % DM 12.5 0.9 11.1 13.9 6  
    Crude fibre % DM 21.2 4.8 16.8 27.7 4  
    NDF % DM 46.3   40.2 52.3 2  
    ADF % DM 37.3   31.7 42.8 2  
    Lignin % DM 5.7       1  
    Ether extract % DM 2.8 1.2 1.3 4.3 6  
    Ash % DM 3.6 1.6 0.4 4.8 6  
    Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.8         *
    Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
    Calcium g/kg DM 4.5 2.0 2.3 7.0 4  
    Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.5 0.3 1.0 1.7 4  
    Potassium g/kg DM 15.2 1.2 13.9 16.0 3  
    Magnesium g/kg DM 1.1 0.1 1.1 1.2 3  
    Manganese mg/kg DM 22   11 33 2  
    Zinc mg/kg DM 18   16 20 2  
    Copper mg/kg DM 4   4 5 2  
    Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
    Arginine % protein 13.3       1  
    Cystine % protein 1.2       1  
    Glycine % protein 4.4       1  
    Histidine % protein 2.7       1  
    Isoleucine % protein 2.7       1  
    Leucine % protein 6.6       1  
    Lysine % protein 4.0       1  
    Methionine % protein 1.0       1  
    Phenylalanine % protein 3.5       1  
    Threonine % protein 2.4       1  
    Tryptophan % protein 1.1       1  
    Tyrosine % protein 2.3       1  
    Valine % protein 3.5       1  
    Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
    Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 7.6       1  
    Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 1.9       1  
    Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
    OM digestibility, ruminants % 87.3         *
    Energy digestibility, ruminants % 85.2         *
    DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.1         *
    ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.1         *
    Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 80.1       1  
    Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
    Energy digestibility, growing pig % 56.9         *
    DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.7         *

    The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


    Barman et al., 2006; CIRAD, 1991; Groenewald et al., 1967; Habit et al., 1988; Mahgoub et al., 2005

    Last updated on 28/11/2013 11:55:43

    Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    Dry matter % as fed 88.4 1
    Crude protein % DM 50.5 35.8 65.2 2
    Crude fibre % DM 4.5 2.8 6.1 2
    Ether extract % DM 6.2 4.5 7.8 2
    Ash % DM 4.5 3.7 5.2 2
    Gross energy MJ/kg DM 21.1 *
    Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    OM digestibility, Ruminant % 92.6 *
    Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
    Energy digestibility, growing pig % 83.1 *
    DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 17.6 *

    The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


    Habit et al., 1988; Imperial Bureau of Animal Nutrition, 1936

    Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:35



    Abdullah, A. Y. ; Abdel Hafes, B. Y., 2004. Inclusion of Prosopis juliflora pods in finishing Awassi lamb diets. Proc. 11th AAAP Animal Science Congress, vol. 2, pp. 373–375.
    Al-Beitawi, N. A. ; Awawdeh, F. T. ; Khwaileh, M. M., 2010. Preliminary study on Prosopis juliflora pods as unconventional feed ingredient in diets of broiler chicks. Anim. Nutr. Feed Technol., 10 (1): 51-60 web icon
    Almeida, P. J. P. ; Pereira, M. L. A. ; Silva, T. V. B. S. ; Pereira, T. C. J. ; Santos, A. B. ; Santos, E. J. ; Oliveira, L. N. ; Azevedo, S. T. ; Augu, C., 2008. Economic performance of santa inês sheep fed with meskit (Prosopis juliflora) pod meal. Zootech 2008, 26 a 30 de maio de 2008 João Pessoa, PB - UFPB/ABZ web icon
    Assis, T. S. ; Medeiros, R. M. T. ; Riet-Correa, F. ; Galiza, G. J. N; Dantas, A. F. M. ; Oliveira, D. M., 2010. Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 30 (1): 13-20 web icon
    Azevedo, G., 1961. Algaroba. 2nd Ed., Rio de Janeiro, SIA, 32 p.
    Barbosa, H. P., 1977. Nutritive value of algaroba determined in sheep digestibility trials. M.Sc. Degree Thesis, Viçosa, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 48 p.
    Barman, K. ; Rai, S. N., 2006. Utilization of tanniniferous feeds. 1. Chemical composition, tannin fractionation, amino acid and mineral profiles and in vitro digestibility of certain Indian agro-industrial byproducts. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 76 (1): 71-80 web icon
    Barros, N. A. M. T. de; Filho, J. L. de Q., 1988. Effect of progressive replacement of molasses by Prosopis juliflora (Sw) DC pods in ruminant rations. In: Habit, M. A.; Saavedra, J. C., 1988. The current state of knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. FAO, Plant Production and Protection Division, Rome web icon
    Barros, N. A. M. T., 1981. Effects of progressive substitution of molasses by algaroba pods (Prosopis juliflora (Sw) DC) in ruminant diets. M. Sc. Thesis. Areia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Centro de Ciencias Agrárias, 97 p.
    Bhatt, S. S. ; Chovatiya, S. G. ; Shah, A. R., 2010. Evaluation of raw and hydrothermically processed Prosopis juliflora seed meal as supplementary feed for the growth of Labeo rohita fingerlings. Aquacult. Nutr., web icon
    Braga, L. G. T. ; Rodrigues, F. L. ; Azevedo, R. V. de ; Carvalho, J. S. O. ; Ramos, A. P. S., 2010. Apparent digestibility of the energy and nutrients of agro-industrial by-products for Nile tilapia. Rev. Bras. Saúde Prod. Anim., 11 (4): 1127-1136 web icon
    Buzo, J. ; Avila, R. ; Bravo, F. O., 1972. Effect of progressive substitution of sorghum per mezquite pods in sheep feeding. Técnica Pecuária en México, DF, 20: 23-27
    Cabral, C. R. Jr. ; E. C. Miranda, C. R. ; Amorim, E. P. R. ; Silva, D. A. ; Guimarães, I. G. ; Miranda, C. C., 2006. Post-harvesting conservation of Prosopis juliflora's pods in Alagoas. Arch. Zootec., 55 (209): 117-120 web icon
    Camara, A. C. L. ; Costa, N. de A. ; Riet-Correa, F. ; Afonso, J. A. B. ; Dantas, A. F. M. ; Mendonca, C. L. de ; Souza, M. I. de, 2009. Spontaneous poisoning in cattle by mesquite beans, Prosopis juliflora (Leg. Mimosoideae) in Pernambuco. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 29 (3): 233-240 web icon
    Castillo Guerrero, A., 1979. Use of different amounts of pods of mesquite [Prosopis juliflora] in feeds for rabbits. Prof. Thesis, UNAM, Mexico City, 23 pp.
    Choudhary, R. S. ; Vaishnav, J. K. ; Nehra, R., 2005. Effect of replacing maize with mesquite pods (Prosopis juliflora) on the performance of broilers. Indian J. Poult. Sci., 40 (2): 124-127 web icon
    Dinesh, K. ; Kumar, D., 2003. A study on problems encountered in sheep rearing in Rajasthan. Indian J. Small Rumin., 9 (1): 43-46
    Dommergues, Y. ; Duhoux, E. ; Diem, H. G., 1999. Les arbres fixateurs d'azote. 1375 ref., ORSTOM, FAO, Editions Espaces 34, Montpellier. 501 pp
    Ecocrop, 2010. Ecocrop database. FAO web icon
    Ecoport, 2010. Ecoport database. Ecoport web icon
    Elfadl, M. A. ; Luukanen, O., 2003. Effect of pruning on Prosopis juliflora: considerations for tropical dryland agroforestry. J. Arid Environ. 53: 441–455 web icon
    FAO, 2010. Grassland Index. A searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. FAO web icon
    Ffolliot, P. F. ; Thames, J. L., 1983. Collection, handling, storage and pre-treatment of Prosopis seeds in Latin America. FAO, Rome web icon
    Gabar, A. E. I. A., 1988. Prosopis chilensis in Sudan: A nonconventional animal feed resource. In: The current state of knowlege on Prosopis juliflora. International Conference on Prosopis. Recife (Brazil), 25-29 Aug 1986, FAO, Rome web icon
    Göhl, B., 1982. Les aliments du bétail sous les tropiques. FAO, Division de Production et Santé Animale, Roma, Italy web icon
    Groenewald, J. W. ; Joubert, D. M. ; Tolken, H., 1967. The chemical composition of South African fodder plants. Proc. A. Afr. Soc. Anim. Prod. 6: 117-128
    Gutteridge, R. C. ; Shelton, H. M., 1994. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture. The Tropical Grassland Society of Australia web icon
    Habit, M. A. ; Saavedra, J. C., 1988. The current state of knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. FAO, Plant Production and Protection Division, Rome web icon
    Imperial Bureau of Animal Nutrition, 1936. Composition of some African foods and feeding stuffs mainly of vegetable origin. Technical Communication No. 6, Rowett Institute, Aberdeen, p. 32
    Lima, C. B. ; Guimaraes, I. G. ; Ribeiro, V. L. ; Miranda, E. C. de, 2009. Mesquite meal in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Pubvet, 3 (3), Ed. 64, Art. 400 web icon
    Lima Filho, H. L. de; Costa, A. N. ; Carvalho Reis, J. de, 1998. Effect of different levels of mesquite flour Prosopis juliflora (Sw) D.C. in the diet on productive parameters of male crossbred swine. Ciencia Veterinaria nos Tropicos, 1 (2): 81-87
    Lima, P. C. F., 1994. Comportamento silvicultural de especies de Prosopis, em Petrolina-PE, Região Semi-Arida Brasileira. PhD thesis, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil web icon
    Mabrouk, H. ; Hilmi, E. ; Abdullah, M., 2008. Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora pods in feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fries. Arab Gulf J. Sci. Res., 26 (1-2): 49-62 web icon
    Mahecha, L. ; Duran, C. V. ; Rosales, M. ; Molina, C. H. ; Molina, E., 2000. Intake of African stargrass (Cynodon plectostachyus) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) in a silvopastoral system. Pasturas Tropicales, 22 (1): 26-30 web icon
    Mahgoub, O. ; Kadim, I. T. ; Johnson, E. H. ; Srikandakumar, A. ; Al-Saqri, N. M. ; Al-Abri, A. S. ; Ritchie, A., 2005. The use of a concentrate containing Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) pods and date palm by-products to replace commercial concentrate in diets of Omani sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 120 (1-2): 33-41 web icon
    Mahgoub, O. ; Kadim, I. T. ; Forsberg, N. E. ; Al-Ajmi, D. S. ; Al-Saqry, N. M. ; Al-Abri, A. S. ; Annamalai, K., 2005. Evaluation of Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) pods as a feed for goats. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 121 (3): 319-327 web icon
    Makkar, H. P. S. ; Singh, B. ; Negi, S. S., 1990. Tannin levels and their degree of polymerisation and specific activity in some agro-industrial by-products. Biological Wastes, 31: 137-144 web icon
    Mathur, B. K. ; Siyak, S. R. ; Shailesh Paharia, 2002. Incorporation of Prosopis juliflora pod husk as ingredient of low cost ration for sheep in arid region. Current Agriculture, 26 (1-2): 95-98
    Mathur, B. K. ; Siyak, S. R. ; Bohra, H. C., 2003. Feeding of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pods powder to Marwari goats in arid region. Current Agriculture, 27 (1-2): 57-59
    Mendes, B. V., 1988. Prosopis in Brazil. In: The current state of knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. Habit, M.A. and Saavedra, J.C. (Eds). FAO, Plant Production and Protection Division, Rome web icon
    Miranda, E. C. de; Guimaraes, I. G. ; Cabral Junior, C. R. ; Pinheiro, D. M., 2009. Growth performance of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed diets containing different replacement levels of corn by mesquite pods meal. Pubvet, 3 (2), Ed. 63, Art. 395 web icon
    Misri, J. ; Vihan, V. S. ; Kumar, A., 2003. Toxicity studies on Prosopis juliflora in goats - haematobiochemical and pathological profile. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 73 (4): 349-352
    Nair, P.K.R., 1993. An introduction to agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publishers in collaboration with International Centre for Research in Agroforestry web icon
    NAS, 1980. Firewood crops: Shrub and tree species for energy production. NAS, Washington D.C., USA web icon
    Nobre, F. V., 1981. Substitution of wheat flour (Triticum vulgare) by the ground algarobeira fruit (Prosopis juliflora (Sw) DC) in the feeding of dairy cows. M. Sc. Thesis. Areia (PB), Univ. Fed. da Paraíba, Centro de Ciencias Agrárias, 51 p.
    Obeidat, B. S. ; Abdullah, A. Y. ; Al-Lataifeh, F. A., 2008. The effect of partial replacement of barley grains by Prosopis juliflora pods on growth performance, nutrient intake, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of Awassi lambs fed finishing diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 146 (1-2): 42-54 web icon
    Oliveira, J. P. F. de, 2009. Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora): an alternative to feeding of sheep in Northeastern Brazil. PUBVET, 3 (7) web icon
    Orwa, C. ; Mutua, A. ; Kindt, R. ; Jamnadass, R. ; Anthony, S., 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya web icon
    Pancholy, R. ; Mali, P. C., 1999. E€ffective utilisation of Prosopis juliflora pods by ensiling with desert grass Lasiurus sindicus. Bioresource Technol., 69 (3): 281-283 web icon
    Pandya, P. R. ; Gupta, R. S. ; Talpada, P. M. ; Patel, G. R. ; Desai, M. C., 2005. Effect of complete feeds based on wheat straw and Prosopis juliflora pods on growth and reproductive performance of growing crossbred heifers. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 75 (1): 56-59
    Pasiecznik, N. M. ; Vera-Cruz, M. T. ; Harris, P. J. C., 1995. Prosopis juliflora withstands extreme aridity and goat browsing in the Republic of Cape Verde. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 13: 89-91
    Pasiecznik, N. M. ; Felker, P. ; Harris, P. J. C. ; Harsh, L. N. ; Cruz, G. ; Tewari, J. C. ; Cadoret, K. ; Maldonado, L. J., 2001. The Prosopis juliflora - Prosopis pallida complex: a monograph. HDRA, Coventry, UK. pp. 172 web icon
    Pereira, E. S. ; Pimentel, P. G. ; Duarte, L. S. ; Villarroel, A. B. S. ; Regadas Filho, J. G. L. ; Rocha Junior, J. N., 2010. Intestinal digestibility of protein of adapted forages and by-products in Brazilian Northeast by three-steps technique. Rev. Bras. Saúde Prod. Anim., 11 (2): 403-413 web icon
    Ravikala, K. ; Patel, A. M. ; Murthy, K. S. ; Wadhwani, K. N., 1995. Growth efficiency in feedlot lambs on Prosopis juliflora based diets. Small Rumin. Res., 16: 227-231 web icon
    Riveros, F., 1992. The genus Prosopis and its potential to improve livestock production. In: Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock. Speedy, A.W. and Pugliese, P.L. (Eds.), FAO, Animal Production and Health Paper. Rome. pp.257 web icon
    Roncallo, B., 2002. Utilization of the fruits of native trees and shrubs for cattle feeding in the subhumid tropics of Colombia. Seminario la Ganadería Bovina del siglo XXI. Bucaramanga
    Russell, F. C., 1947. The chemical composition and digestibility of fodder shrubs and trees. In: The use and misuse of shrubs and trees as fodder. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux. Joint Publication No. 10, 185-231
    Sawal, R. K. ; Ram Ratan; Yadav, S. B. S., 2004. Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pods as a feed resource for livestock - A review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 17 (5): 719-725 web icon
    Shaltout, K. H. ; El-Keblawy, A. A. ; Mousa, M. T., 2008. Evaluation of the range plants quality and palatability for camel grazing in the United Arab Emirates. J. Camelid Sci., 1: 1-13 web icon
    Shukla, P. C. ; Talpada, P. M. ; Pande, M. B., 1984. Prosopis juliflora pods, a new cattle feed source. Animal Nutrition Department, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand, Gujrat, India
    Silva, A. M. de A. ; Pereira, J. A. A. ; Costa, P. M. A. ; Mello, H. V. de, 1989. Use of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) for feeding pigs. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 18 (2): 179-183
    Silva, A. M. de A. ; Rodrigues, M. E. ; Silva, J. F. da, 1990. Nutritional value of mesquite beans (Prosopis juliflora) in the diet of rabbits. Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 2: 9-16 web icon
    Silva, J. H. V. da ; Oliveira, J. N. C. de ; Silva, E. L. da ; Jordao Filho, J. ; Ribeiro, M. L. G., 2002. Use of integral mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C.) pods meal in the Japanese quails feeding. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 31 (4): 1789-1794 web icon
    Silva, J. H. V. ; Silva, E. L. da; Filho, J. J. ; Toledo, R. S. ; Albino, L. F. T. ; Ribeiro, M. L. G. ; Couto, H. P. C., 2002. Energy values and effects of integral mesquite pods (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C.) meal inclusion in commercial laying hens diets. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 31 (6): 2255-2264 web icon
    Silva, A. M. M. ; Silva, A. R. ; Pinheiro, A. M. ; Freitas, S. R. V. B. ; Silva, V. D. A. ; Souza, C. S. ; Hughes, J. B. ; El-Bachá, R. S. ; Costa, M. F. D. ; Velozo, E. S. ; Tardy, M. ; Costa, S. L., 2007. Alkaloids from Prosopis juliflora leaves induce glial activation, cytotoxicity and stimulate NO production.. Toxicon, 49 (5): 601-614 web icon
    Silva, S., 1988. Prosopis juliflora (Sw) DC in Brazil. in: The current state of knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. Habit, M. A. and Saavedra, J. C. ed., 1988. FAO, Plant Production and Protection Division, Rome web icon
    Silva, M. de A., 1988. Botany, taxonomy and distribution of the Genus Prosopis L.. In: The current state of knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. Habit, M.A. and Saavedra, J.C. (Eds). FAO, Plant Production and Protection Division, Rome web icon
    Smith, T. ; Godfrey, S. H. ; Buttery, P. J. ; Owen, E., 2004. The contribution of small ruminants in alleviating poverty: communicating messages from research. Proceedings of the third DFID Livestock Production Programme Link Project (R7798) workshop for small ruminant keepers. Izaak Walton Inn, Embu, Kenya, 4-7 February 2003. Natural Resources International Ltd, Aylesford, Kent, UK web icon
    Stein, R. B. da S. ; Toledo, L. R. A. de; Almeida, F. Q. de; Arnaut, A. C. ; Patitucci, L. T. ; Soares Neto, J. ; Costa, V. T. M. da, 2005. Effects of feeding mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) D.C.) for horses. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 34 (4): 1240-1247 web icon
    Tabosa, I. M. ; Souza, J. C. ; Graca, D. L. ; Barbosa-Filho, J. M. ; Almeida, R. N. ; Rie Correa, F., 2000. Neuronal vacuolation of the trigeminal nuclei in goats caused by ingestion of Prosopis juliflora pods. Vet. Hum. Toxic., 42 (3): 155-158 web icon
    Tabosa, I. M; Riet-Correa, F. ; Barros, S. S. ; Summers, B. A. ; Simões, S. V. D. ; Medeiros, R. M. T. ; Nobre, V. M. T., 2006. Neurohistologic and ultrastructural lesions in cattle experimentally intoxicated with the plant Prosopis juliflora. Vet. Pathol., 43: 695 web icon
    Talpada, P. M. ; Shukla, P. C., 1988. Effect of feeding ground Prosopis juliflora pods to lactating cows on feed and nutrients utilization for milk production. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 41 (3): 274-279
    Talpada, P. M. ; Pandya, P. R. ; Patel, G. R. ; Patel, D. C. ; Desai, M., 2002. Utilization of complete feed using Prosopis juliflora pods as a ration of growing crossbred calves. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 19 (1): 1-6
    USDA, 2010. GRIN - Germplasm Resources Information Network. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland web icon
    van der Maesen, L. J. G. ; Oyen, L. P. A., 1997. Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC.. Record from Proseabase. Faridah Hanum, I. and van der Maesen, L. J. G. (Editors). PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia web icon
    Vanker, S. G. ; Talpada, P. M. ; Khanna, K., 1998. Feasibility of utilization of Prosopis juliflora pods in broiler ration. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 23 (2): 91-96