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Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana)

Description and recommendations

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Common names

Abyssinian Rhodes grass, Rhodes grass, Callide Rhodes grass, common Rhodes grass [English]; chloris, herbe de Rhodes, capim-de-Rhodes [Portuguese]; grama de Rodas, pasto de Rodas, pasto Rhodes, zacate gordura [Spanish]; koro-korosan, banuko [Philippines];非洲虎尾草 [Chinese];  アフリカヒゲシバ [Japanese]; tucgiéân [Vietnam]

Synonyms

Chloris abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Rich.

Related feed(s)

Description

Rhodes grass is a perennial or annual grass. Rhodes grass is a leafy grass, highly variable in habit. Tufted or creeping, Rhodes grass culms may be erect or decumbent, sometimes rooting from the nodes, 1-2 m in height. The roots are very deep, down to 4.5 m. Rhodes grass leaves are linear, leaf-blade is flat or folded, glabrous, 12-50 cm long x 10-20 mm wide, tapering at the apex. Rhodes grass seed head has an open hand shape and encompasses 2-10 one-sided or double-sided racemes, 4-15 cm long. Usually light, greenish brown (rarely yellow) in colour, Rhodes grass inflorescences turn darker brown as they mature (Cook et al., 2005). The spikelets (over 32) are densely imbricate, two-awned. The fruit is a caryopsis, longitudinally grooved (FAO, 2014; Quattrocchi, 2006; Moore, 2006Cook et al., 2005; Duke, 1983).

Rhodes grass is primarily used as forage: it can be grazed, cut for hay or used as deferred feed. It is not suitable for silage. It can form pure stands or be sown with other plant species (grasses or legumes).

A useful forage with moderate to high feed quality, many cultivars of Rhodes grass have been developed in the world in order to suit different cultivation conditions or end-uses: for example early, late and very late flowering cultivars can be found on the market (DPINSW, 2004). Prostrate cultivars are suitable to grazing and erect cultivars are adapted to hay (FAO, 2014; Quattrocchi, 2006; Cook et al., 2005; Duke, 1983; Göhl, 1982). Rhodes grass is useful as a cover crop and as a soil improver (improves fertility and soil structure, decreases nematode numbers)(Cook et al., 2005).

Distribution

Rhodes grass originated from Africa and is now widespread in tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. Rhodes grass was introduced to India and Pakistan, Australia and the USA. In Australia, Rhodes grass was introduced by soldiers returning from the Boer war (at the beginning of the 20th century). In Western Australia, Rhodes grass is one of the most widely sown sub-tropical grasses since 2000 (Moore, 2006).

Rhodes grass is a spring and summer-growing grass that can be found in open woodlands and grasslands, in road margins, disturbed sites and river banks. It is cultivated in sown pastures, in irrigated terraces (Quattrocchi, 2006; Cook et al., 2005). Its latitudinal range is between 18-33°N and S and it grows from sea level up to 2000 (-2400) m in equatorial areas and up to 1000 m in subtropical areas (Ecocrop, 2014; Mengistu, 1985).

Rhodes grass thrives in places where annual temperatures range from 16.5°C to above 26°C (with maximum growth at 30°C/25°C (day/night temperature)) and annual rainfall is about 600-750 mm with a summer-rainfall period (Ecocrop, 2014; Moore, 2006; Cook et al., 2005). However, Rhodes grass can survive in areas where annual rainfall range is between 310 mm and 4030 mm and where temperature extremes are 5°C and 50°C (Cook et al., 2005; Duke, 1983). Deeply rooted, Rhodes grass can withstand long dry periods (over 6 months) and up to 15 days flooding (FAO, 2014; Cook et al., 2005). Seasonal waterlogging over 30 cm kills the plant (FAO, 2014). Some cultivars are also tolerant of frost.

Rhodes grass can grow on a wide range of soil from poor sandy to heavy clayey alkaline and saline soils (>10dS/m). This salt tolerance is particularly interesting for irrigated pastures where it can be cultivated without problem. Rhodes grass does better on fertile, well-structured soils and it prefers soil pH between 5.5 and 7.5. Establishment on acidic soils is difficult. Rhodes grass is tolerant of Li but not of Mn and Mg (Cook et al., 2005). Rhodes grass is a full sunlight species which does not grow well under shade (Ecocrop, 2014; FAO, 2014;Cook et al., 2005) . 

 

Forage management

Rhodes grass is a persistent, drought resistant and highly productive species: the highest recorded yield being about 30-40 t DM/ha while average value is in the 10-16 t DM/ha range (Ecocrop, 2014; Murphy, 2010). Rhodes grass stands require however good management and fertilizer (N) if long production (over 3 years) is intended. Rhodes grass is suited to both rainfed and irrigated pastures. Rhodes grass can be sown alone or in combination with various other grasses such as Paspalum dilatatum, Setaria sphacelata, Cenchrus ciliaris or lower growing cvs. of Panicum maximum (Cook et al., 2005). Rhodes grass can be mixed with oats or wheat that provide protection during winter or it can be broadcast in maize, sorghum or cotton crops (Duke, 1983). Association of Rhodes grass with legumes was shown to improve yields. It can be successfully sown with alfalfa (Medicago sativa), stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis), Neonotonia wightii, centro (Centrosema pubescens), phasey bean (Macroptylium lathyroides), Lototonis bainesii, Desmodium uncinatum and Trifolium sp.. It can be mixed with butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) for revegetation purpose in Australia (Cook et al., 2005)

Rhodes grass can be vegetatively propagated or established from seeds. For vegetative propagation, larger clumps can be cut into pieces and be planted at 1 m distance from each other. Seeds can be broadcasted or shallow-drilled (5-10 mm depth) during fall. The seeds can germinate under dry conditions provided the soil has residual moisture. As soon as favourable conditions occur in early spring, Rhodes grass resumes active growth and it provides full groundcover within 3 months of sowing. Sowing Rhodes grass during late spring is a strategy to kill weeds such as spiny burr gras (DPINSW, 2004).

Because Rhodes grass seeds are fluffy they may need to be coated or to be mixed with a carrier to improve the flow through the seeder (Moore, 2006). Rhodes grass seeds establish readily on a well-prepared seed-bed. In Australia, aerial seeding is frequent. Mulching might help Rhodes grass establishment after sowing. Rhodes grass develops quickly and the stand begins to produce valuable forage within 6 months. The highest yield is however obtained during the second year of cultivation (FAO, 2014; Cook et al., 2005). 

Rhodes grass nutritive value is rather high and can be improved through fertilizer or manure applications. Though, as the stand blooms, its nutritive value quickly declines. Grazing may maintain Rhodes grass in leafy and highly nutritive condition provided grazing is not too heavy and practised over short periods. If the grass is used to make hay, cuttings can be done once a month (Göhl, 1982). During the fist year of cultivation, livestock should not enter the Rhodes grass stands before the secondary root system that allows grass anchorage in the soil  is well established: otherwise, livestock might uproot Rhodes grass and hurt the stand. Moreover, in order to improve stand longevity through seedlings, newly established stands of Rhodes grass should be allowed to flower and set seeds before being grazed (FAO, 2014; Cook et al., 2005; DPINSW, 2004). 

Environmental impact

Soil improver, soil revegetation and erosion control

Rhodes grass readily establishes and provides cover within 3 months of sowing (Moore, 2006).  Using Rhodes grass as a cover crop improves soil structure, water infiltration and water-holding capacity. The development of Rhodes grass also lowers soil temperatures during summer (Valenzuela et al., 2002). Rhodes grass creeping habit provides good soil stabilisation and it is commonly used for the revegetation of mine disturbed soils in Australia (Harwood et al., 1999).

Rhodes grass clippings were used to make mulch and protect soil from erosion in Hawaii (Valenzuela et al., 2002). It could also make valuable living-sod in horticultural crops such as zucchini, cabbage, bulb onions, and eggplant. Rhodes gras then provides organic matter, protection from wind and sun to the vegetables (Valenzuela et al., 2002).

Weed potential and weed controller

Rhodes grass has ability to spread readily in rainforest fringes in Queensland (Australia). In the region, Rhodes grass which  has also profuse production of seeds, develops so quickly that it smothers native species and forms almost pure stands (DPIFQ, 2007). On the contrary, Rhodes grass outcompetes summer weeds and can be helpful in controlling their development (Moore, 2006).

Potential constraints

Selenium accumulation

Rhodes grass is known to be a Selenium accumulator. When it is grown on Se-rich soils, it can contain dangerous levels of Se that can cause mortality or morbidity in most livestock (DPINSW, 2004). Acute toxicity occurs at 3 mg Se/kg BW in cattle and cause death within few days after intoxication. No remedy is known. Fortunately, seleniferous plants are not readily eaten by most animals due to their bitter taste and strong odor, they will be consumed when other forage is sparse (Cornell University, 2014).

Ruminants

Rhodes grass can be a high quality forage for ruminants when it is grazed, or harvested for hay conservation at early stage of maturity. However, the nutritive value of Rhodes grass strongly decreases with increasing stage of maturity, especially after the first cut. Rhodes grass hay harvested at high stage of maturity generally have a low protein content and a high fibre content, particularly in stems, and it should be supplemented for any ruminants with nutritional requirements higher than those of maintenance.

Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

At low maturity stage (4 weeks of regrowth or less), Rhodes grass can be a high quality forage with a high content of crude protein for a grass (more than 15 %DM) (Mbwile et al., 1997a; Mero et al., 1997; Milford et al., 1968) and an in vitro organic matter digestibility of 70-80 % (Mbwile et al., 1997a; Mero et al., 1997). However, the nutritional quality of Rhodes grass clearly declines with maturity stage. After 10 weeks of regrowth, the crude protein content ranges around 9-10 % DM and the in vitro organic matter digestibility can reach value as low as 50% (Mero et al., 1997a). After more than 15 weeks of regrowth, the crude protein content of Rhodes grass can be largely lower than 8% DM (Milford et al., 1968), which is a limit of clear deficiency of crude protein for ruminants (Leng, 1990). The decrease in nutritive value is clearly higher before the first cut compared to subsequent cuts, likely because of the early flowering habit of the species (Mbwile et al., 1997b). Rhodes grass is also characterized by a particularly low nutritive value of stems compared to leaves (Mbwile et al., 1997a; Mero et al., 1997; Milford et al., 1968). The nutritive value of Rhodes grass is also influenced by the season (Mbwile et al., 1997a) and can differ according to the Rhodes grass variety considered (Mero et al., 1997; Milford et al., 1968).

It seems that, at a given maturity stage, Rhodes grass have a similar nutritive value compared to that of other tropical species such as Cenchrus ciliaris, Bothriochloa insculpta and Panicum coloratum (Mero et al., 1997). Wilman et al., 1998 also observed that the NDF content of Rhodes grass is similar to other tropical grasses such as Cenchrus ciliaris or Zea mays when sampled at a similar growth stage, but clearly higher to that of temperature forage species. Particularly, the stems and leaf sheaths of Rhodes grass, as those of Cenchrus ciliaris contains a very high amount of NDF and lignin and have a low in vitro digestibility compared to that of most temperate forages (Wilman et al., 1998). It also seems that the plant tissue structure of the stems and leaf sheaths of Rhodes grass, as well as those Cenchrus ciliaris, makes the inner cells difficult to reach for the ruminal micro-organisms (Wilman et al., 1998).

Rhodes grass is widely used as hay (Haffar et al., 1997; Mtenga et al., 1990; Tagari et al., 1977). Rhodes grass used for hay is generally harvested at high stage of maturity and for that reason, the nutritive value of hay can be low, with crude protein content ranging between 5 and 8%DM (Mtenga et al., 1990). However, Rhodes grass hay cut at a low age of regrowth, such as 21 days, could have a high nutritive value, comparable to that of fresh Rhodes grass with a CP protein content close to 15% DM, similar to that of fresh herbage (Tagari et al., 1977). Haffar et al., 1997 observed that the harvest season and the sensibility of the Rhodes grass variety to leaf shattering can have an important effect on the chemical composition of hay and particularly on the crude protein content.

Grazed or fresh forage

In vivo digestibility of organic matter and intake of Rhodes grass by dairy cows or heifers clearly decreased with increasing stage of maturity after the first cut (Abate et al., 1981; Mbwile et al., 1997b). Mbwile et al., 1997b observed a decrease of in vivo organic matter digestibility from 76% at 6 weeks of regrowth to 60% at 12 weeks of regrowth in cows fed fresh Rhodes grass. A clear decrease of intake of Rhodes grass with increasing stage of maturity was also observed in grazing growing Friesian and Ayshire heifers (Abate et al., 1981). After the second cut, the effect of the stage of maturity on intake and in vivo digestibilities is less important and these parameters can remain high with increasing stage of maturity (Mbwile et al., 1997b). It has also been observed that organic matter digestibility in grazing heifers was higher during the wet compared to the dry season in grazing heifers (Abate et al., 1981).

Rhodes grass fed at low stage of maturity can be fed to lactating cows with moderate milk production, generally with a supplement. Ehrlich et al., 2003a demonstrated that Rhodes grass pasture, irrigated, mulched at least once a year and grazed at a regrowth age between 2 and 6 weeks after the 2nd or 3rd cut, could be fed to dairy cows producing more than 14.3 kg/d with a supplementation of 5 kg cereal grain-based concentrate per cow and a stocking rate up to 3.7 cows/ha. In another study (Ehrlich et al., 2003b), the same authors observed that the instantaneous stocking rate of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows grazing Rhodes grass supplemented with 5 kg of cereal-based concentrate could increase from 3.5 to 6.1 cows/ha on irrigated pastures with 6 week-grazing rotation without altering milk production; however, only the cows stocked at 3.5/ha could not maintained their live weight during the 18 weeks of the experiment and an increase of the supplementation is advised by the author for stocking rate higher than 3.5 cows/ha. Mbwile et al., 1997b fed lactating Friesian cows with Rhodes grass fed as green forage and only supplemented with a small amount of salts; however, the evolution of milk production during the experiment was not reported. The cows produced 8.7 kg milk/d at the beginning of the experiment. Abate et al., 1981 observed that dairy heifers grazing Rhodes grass had an average daily gain of 581 g/day during the whole year experiment with a stocking rate of 2 livestock unit/ha but the average daily gain ranged between 200 and 1100 g/d according to the period of the year. These authors considered that a supplementation was necessary to sustain an optimal average daily gain of 550g/d of dairy heifers grazing Rhodes grass at least when the forage quality if low.

Mbwile et al., 1997b and Ehrlich et al.,2003a) clearly illustrated that the cows fed Rhodes grass, fresh or grazed, clearly select the leaf part of the plant. For that reason, in order to optimize intake, it can be useful to allow a high level of selection of forage by cows, by offered excess feed. Mbwile et al., 1997b stated the optimal intake level range between less than 10% for good quality Rhodes grass (with less than 8 weeks of regrowth or a second growth) and should be higher than 19% of refusals of 10 or 12 weeks of regrowth.

Hay

Tagari et al., 1977 showed that Rhodes grass hay cut at a low age of regrowth (21 days) could have a high nutritive value comparable to that of fresh Rhodes grass. However, to optimize the harvested biomass, Rhodes grass hay is generally harvested at advanced maturity stages. In numerous cases, Rhodes grass hay alone can hardly cover the nutritional requirement of any ruminants, except eventually for maintenance and it must be supplemented (Mero et al., 1998; Mtenga et al., 1990; Mupangwa et al., 2000; Osuga et al., 2012).

A first limitation of the nutritive value of mature Rhodes grass hay is the low intake that can be reached with this forage, even when compared to hays of other tropical grass species. Mero et al., 1998 showed on growing Blackhead Persian rams that even though the in vivo organic digestibility of Rhodes grass hays harvested at 6 or 10 weeks or regrowth were comparable of higher to that of Cenchrus ciliaris or Panicum coloratum, intake of Rhodes grass was also 20% lower compared with those of two other tropical grass species. To increase intake, these authors recommend that the offered quantities of Rhodes grass should allow 30 to 50% of refusals according to the regrowth stage of the plant, to allow a selection of most digestible plant part by the animals. In that case, Rhodes grass intake may achieve to cover 1.1-1.2 times maintenance requirements of sheep (Mero et al., 1998).

Another main limitation of the nutritive value of mature Rhodes grass hay is its low crude protein content, particularly during the dry season. In numerous cases, a clear increase of animal performance is observed when Rhodes grass hay is supplemented with feed with high crude protein content (Mtenga et al., 1990; Mupangwa et al., 2000; Osuga et al., 2012). Mtenga et al., 1990 observed that a supplementation of low protein Rhodes grass hay (5.7-7.7 %DM) with a concentrates containing between 10 to 18% DM of crude protein increased total intake of growing Tanzanian goats but also, doubled their growth rate, clearly decreased their feed conversion ratio and improved the ratio lean plus fat:bone of the carcass. Mupangwa et al., 2000 also observed that supplementation of a low protein Rhodes grass hay (7% DM of crude protein) with 100 g/day of crushed maize and 25% of legumes (Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus or Macroptilium atropurpureum, 12% DM of crude protein) clearly increased the daily gain of growing East African-type goats, as well as their total intake and the supply of microbial to the intestine. Osuga et al., 2012 also observed that the supplementation of Rhodes grass hay (crude protein content of 5 % DM) with 60 g of maize bran and 15 or 30 % of legumes (Berchemia discolor or Zizyphus mucronata) clearly increased intake, multiplied by 6 to 12 the live-weight gain of growing East African goats and increased the ammonia content of the rumen above 50 mg/l which is considered as the minimal concentration required to maximize microbial growth in the rumen (Leng, 1990).

Silage

As for most tropical forages, few measurement of nutritional value of Rhodes grass silage has been published, likely because of the difficulty of ensiling tropical forages in relation with their high moisture and low water soluble carbohydrate contents (Parvin et al., 2010). Chaudhry et al., 2001 tested the interest to treat Rhodes grass cut at two stages of maturity (60 and 100 days) with CaO, OaOH or a microbial incoculent before ensiling. Only NaOH treatments allowed a significant increase of DM intake in Friesian-Holstein heifers fed mature silage (by about 25%), as well as a reduction in NDF content and in sacco digestibility.

Rabbits

Chloris gayanais generally considered as a source of fibre in rations distributed to rabbits. When proposed to growing rabbits as fresh forage in addition to a limited quantity of concentrate, and in comparison with 6 other forages, Chloris gayana provides the worst growth rate (Ramchurn, 1979).

If Chloris hay and a concentrate are proposed both ad libitum, the forage represents one third of the daily dry matter intake, but if an other forage is also added in a three feeds choice design, proportion of Chloris gayana hay is reduced to only about 20% of the daily intake (Iyeghe-Erakpotobor et al., 2006). Proposed as only feed Chloris gayana is not able to meet the maintenance needs of rabbits (Raharjo et al., 1986). This is mainly in relation with the very low digestibility of energy of this forage (36.3%) combined with a low level of poorly digestible proteins : 7.6% CP in DM and 32.4% of digestibility (Raharjo et al., 1986). Together with a concentrate Chloris gayana hay in comparison with 2 other forages, sweet potatoes vine or dried maize leaves, produced the lowest growth rate, particularly if the concentrate is limited (Mutetikka et al., 1990)

According to these observations, Chloris gayana as fresh forage or hay could be safely used in rabbit feeding but only as a fibre source. 

Citation

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/480 Last updated on July 2, 2014, 15:35

Tables

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 25.0 6.4 16.5 39.7 192
Crude protein % DM 8.9 2.8 5.1 15.9 250
Crude fibre % DM 37.4 3.5 28.4 43.5 224
NDF % DM 72.4 3.2 70.4 82.1 27 *
ADF % DM 43.5 3.0 36.6 45.9 21 *
Lignin % DM 6.1 1.7 2.7 7.7 12 *
Ether extract % DM 2.2 0.5 1.2 3.4 168
Ash % DM 8.9 1.6 6.0 13.0 244
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.8 1.0 2.2 5.9 197
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.9 0.9 1.3 5.3 201
Potassium g/kg DM 18.7 5.6 7.7 29.4 187
Sodium g/kg DM 3.1 1.5 0.2 5.6 16
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.9 0.5 1.0 2.9 171
Manganese mg/kg DM 72 65 18 268 31
Zinc mg/kg DM 28 12 16 65 31
Copper mg/kg DM 6 1 4 9 31
Iron mg/kg DM 237 180 97 498 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 59.9 7.5 52.0 78.5 18 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 57.3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.5 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.4 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 61.4 16.0 22.0 78.7 18

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Aumont et al., 1991; CIRAD, 1991; Dzowela et al., 1990; French, 1943; Hassan et al., 1979; Hassoun, 2009; Holm, 1971; Mbwile et al., 1997; Mlay et al., 2006; Shem et al., 1999; Singh et al., 1992; Todd, 1956; Todd, 1956; Walker, 1975; Work, 1937

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:54

TABLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE.

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 86.3 3.5 76.2 92.8 138
Crude protein % DM 9.4 2.6 4.3 14.6 160
Crude fibre % DM 35.3 2.1 31.2 40.4 129
NDF % DM 70.4 2.2 70.4 79.7 36 *
ADF % DM 41.2 4.3 37.5 50.1 38 *
Lignin % DM 5.6 1.9 3.9 9.7 33 *
Ether extract % DM 1.6 0.5 0.9 2.5 29
Ash % DM 9.8 1.4 6.7 13.2 154
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.0 0.3 18.0 19.8 7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.1 0.7 2.0 4.6 66
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.6 0.6 1.6 4.2 67
Potassium g/kg DM 16.9 5.3 5.0 23.8 54
Sodium g/kg DM 4.1 3.0 1.2 8.9 13
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.4 0.3 0.9 2.2 54
Manganese mg/kg DM 107 46 47 209 9
Zinc mg/kg DM 22 19 0 83 17
Copper mg/kg DM 5 2 3 9 17
Iron mg/kg DM 31 83 0 220 7
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 58.8 4.1 49.7 63.6 26 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 55.4 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.0 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 40.5 13.3 17.0 55.0 14

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991; El-Hag et al., 1992; French, 1943; Gartner et al., 1975; Hassoun, 2009; Holm, 1971; Holm, 1971; Kategile et al., 1988; Kennedy et al., 1992; Mahgoub et al., 2005; Mandibaya et al., 1999; Mero et al., 1998; Minson, 1971; Ondiek et al., 1999; Rees et al., 1980; Richard et al., 1989; Shem et al., 1999; Todd, 1956

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:54

TABLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE.

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 21.8 1.3 20.1 23.6 5
Crude protein % DM 10.1 4.1 4.5 16.1 5
Crude fibre % DM 33.8 4.5 26.8 37.2 5
NDF % DM 69.1 *
ADF % DM 39.6 *
Lignin % DM 5.3 *
Ether extract % DM 2.2 1
Ash % DM 13.8 1.6 12.8 16.6 5
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 4.6 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.3 1
Potassium g/kg DM 34.0 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.7 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 62.7 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 58.6 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 8.9 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Blair Ralns, 1963; CIRAD, 1991; Hassoun, 2009

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:54

TABLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE.

References

References

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