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African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa)

Description and recommendations

Common names

African yam bean, yam-pea [English], pois tubéreux africain, haricot igname, pomme de terre du Mossi [French], kutreku, kulege, akitereku, apetreku [Ghana], girigiri, kutonoso, roya, efik, nsama, ibibio [Nigeria]; cinkhoma, nkhoma [Malawi], okpo dudu [Ibo], bitei [Obudu], sesonge, gundosollo, sumpelegu, tschangilu [Togo], Yoruba: sese, sheshe [Yoruba], giliabande, pempo, mpempo [Congo]

Synonyms

Dolichos stenocarpus Hochst. ex A. Rich., Sphenostylis ornata A. Chev., Vigna ornata Welw. ex Bak. (USDA, 2009)

Related feed(s)

Description

The African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Harms) is a perennial climbing bush, 1-3 m high, generally grown as an annual. Its leaves are trifoliate with oval leaflets (2.7 to 13 cm long and 0.2 to 5.5 cm broad). Sphenostylis stenocarpa is cultivated for its edible tubers, which look like elongated sweet potatoes, and for its seeds, which are contained in hard and tough, 20-30 long pods. It is mainly used as food but can be used to feed animals.

Distribution

Sphenostylis stenocarpa is native to tropical west and central Africa and is cultivated in southern and eastern Africa. It thrives on deep, loose sandy and loamy soils with good organic content and good drainage. It grows better in regions where annual rainfalls range between 800-1400 mm and where temperatures are comprised between 19-27°C (Ecoport, 2009).

Forage management

The plant flowers after 90 days and the pods mature in 140 to 210 days. The tubers are ready to harvest 150 to 240 days after sowing (Ecocrop, 2009).

Potential constraints

The seeds contain tannins, trypsin inhibitors, hydrogen cyanide, saponins and phytic acid (Akinmutimi et al., 2006). Processes such as heating, soaking or fermenting can be used to decrease antinutritional factors and improve the nutritional value of Sphenostylis stenocarpa products and its by-products (Onyeike et al., 1995).

Nutritional attributes

There is relatively little information about the composition of African yam bean products. The seeds are rich in protein (22-25% DM) with a relatively low fibre content (crude fibre <10% DM). The protein is particularly rich in lysine (up to 9% of protein), a value higher than that of soybean.

Poultry

African yam bean seeds were found to have a higher ME value than soybean meal. Heat treatment (autoclaving or cooking) results in a significant increase in ME (Nwokolo et al., 1985).

Rabbits

Raw seeds could be included at 10% in weaner rabbit diets as a substitute for soybean meal (Akinmutimi et al., 2006).

Fish

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

In Nile tilapia fingerlings, African yam bean seeds used at 15 to 60% of the dietary protein (substituting for full fat soybeans) had a depressive effect on growth performance (Alegbeleye et al., 2002).

Citation

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2013. African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/704 Last updated on June 13, 2013, 11:10

Tables

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.0 1.0 90.2 92.5 6
Crude protein % DM 23.4 1.5 21.6 25.9 9
Crude fibre % DM 8.6 1.8 6.0 9.9 4
Ether extract % DM 2.7 1.3 1.1 4.2 6
Ash % DM 4.2 0.7 3.2 5.0 6
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.9 1.0 16.3 18.9 4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.6 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.3 1
Potassium g/kg DM 0.0 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.8 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 23 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 27 1
Copper mg/kg DM 16 1
Iron mg/kg DM 33 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.3 0.2 3.9 4.6 5
Arginine % protein 6.0 0.9 5.1 7.3 5
Aspartic acid % protein 10.3 1.2 8.8 11.5 5
Cystine % protein 2.3 0.2 2.0 2.6 5
Glutamic acid % protein 14.4 1.7 11.8 16.4 5
Glycine % protein 4.3 0.2 4.0 4.5 5
Histidine % protein 4.5 0.5 4.0 5.3 5
Isoleucine % protein 3.9 0.7 2.6 4.5 6
Leucine % protein 7.3 0.3 7.0 7.8 6
Lysine % protein 8.6 0.7 7.4 9.3 6
Methionine % protein 1.3 0.1 1.2 1.4 5
Phenylalanine % protein 5.4 0.4 4.6 5.8 6
Proline % protein 4.5 0.3 4.1 4.8 5
Serine % protein 5.9 0.6 5.0 6.4 5
Threonine % protein 3.8 0.3 3.4 4.2 6
Tryptophan % protein 1.3 1
Tyrosine % protein 4.2 0.3 3.8 4.5 6
Valine % protein 4.6 0.5 3.8 5.3 6
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 55.1 33.4 20.0 86.4 3
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 13.1 1.0 12.0 13.7 3

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Agunbiade et al., 1999; Akinmutimi et al., 2006; Evans et al., 1974; Nwokolo et al., 1985; Nwokolo, 1987; Onyeike et al., 2002

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.8 0.8 88.5 90.8 6
Crude protein % DM 22.9 1.2 21.6 25.3 9
Crude fibre % DM 9.6 9.1 10.0 2
Ether extract % DM 2.3 1.0 1.1 3.6 6
Ash % DM 3.6 0.7 2.8 4.5 6
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.9 18.8 19.0 2 *
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Cystine % protein 2.0 0.1 1.9 2.2 5
Isoleucine % protein 2.4 0.4 1.9 2.7 5
Leucine % protein 7.4 0.5 6.9 7.8 5
Lysine % protein 6.2 1.1 5.1 7.7 5
Methionine % protein 1.3 0.2 1.1 1.6 5
Phenylalanine % protein 4.8 0.3 4.3 5.1 5
Threonine % protein 4.3 0.4 3.8 4.8 5
Tyrosine % protein 4.0 0.2 3.8 4.3 5
Valine % protein 3.6 0.4 3.2 4.0 5
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 41.2 23.9 23.5 74.4 4
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 15.3 15.1 15.5 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Agunbiade et al., 1999; Nwokolo et al., 1985; Onyeike et al., 2002

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 11.4 1
Ether extract % DM 2.6 1
Ash % DM 2.6 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.0 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.0 1
Potassium g/kg DM 4.0 1
Sodium g/kg DM 0.7 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.0 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 52 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 30 1
Copper mg/kg DM 23 1
Iron mg/kg DM 200 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Agunbiade et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 52.5 1
Crude protein % DM 23.5 1
NDF % DM 46.8 1
ADF % DM 20.1 1
Lignin % DM 8.3 1
Ether extract % DM 2.2 1
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 45.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production) % 64 1
ME ruminants (gas production) MJ/kg DM 10.6 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Ajayi et al., 2009

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

References

References

Ajayi, F. T. ; Akande, S. R. ; Adegbite, A. A. ; Idowu, B., 2009. Assessment of seven under-utilized grain legume foliages as feed resources for ruminants. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 21 (9) web icon
Ajayi, F. T. ; Akande, S. R. ; Odejide, J. O. ; Idowu, B., 2010. Nutritive evaluation of some tropical under-utilized grain legume seeds for ruminant’s nutrition. J. Am. Sci., 6 (7): 1-7 web icon
Akinmutimi, A. H. ; Amaechi, N. ; Unogu, M., 2006. Evaluation of raw African yam bean meal as substitute for soya bean meal in the diet of weaner rabbits. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 5 (11): 907-911 web icon
Alegbeleye, W. O. ; Obasa, S. O. ; Abdul, W. O., 2002. Evaluation of African Yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa hochst ex a. rich) as a replacement for soy bean in the diets of Nile tipalia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. ASSET - Series A: Agriculture & Environment, 2 (2): 73-79 web icon
Ecocrop, 2009. Ecocrop database. FAO web icon
Ecoport, 2009. Ecoport database. Ecoport web icon
Nwokolo, E. ; Oji, U. I., 1985. Variation in metabolizable energy content of raw or autoclaved white and brown varieties of three tropical grain legumes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 13 (1): 141-146 web icon
Onyeike, E. U. ; Ayalogu, E. O. ; Uzogara, S. G., 1995. Influence of heat processing of African yam bean seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) flour on the growth and organ weights of rats. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 48: 85-93 web icon
Onyeike, E. N. ; Omubo-Dede, T. T., 2002. Effect of heat treatment on the proximate composition, energy values, and levels of some toxicants in African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed varieties. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 57: 223-231 web icon
USDA, 2009. GRIN - Germplasm Resources Information Network. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland web icon

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