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African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa)

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

African yam bean, yam-pea [English], pois tubéreux africain, haricot igname, pomme de terre du Mossi [French], kutreku, kulege, akitereku, apetreku [Ghana], girigiri, kutonoso, roya, efik, nsama, ibibio [Nigeria]; cinkhoma, nkhoma [Malawi], okpo dudu [Ibo], bitei [Obudu], sesonge, gundosollo, sumpelegu, tschangilu [Togo], Yoruba: sese, sheshe [Yoruba], giliabande, pempo, mpempo [Congo]

Synonyms 

Dolichos stenocarpus Hochst. ex A. Rich., Sphenostylis ornata A. Chev., Vigna ornata Welw. ex Bak. (USDA, 2009)

Related feed(s) 
Description 

The African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Harms) is a perennial climbing bush, 1-3 m high, generally grown as an annual. Its leaves are trifoliate with oval leaflets (2.7 to 13 cm long and 0.2 to 5.5 cm broad). Sphenostylis stenocarpa is cultivated for its edible tubers, which look like elongated sweet potatoes, and for its seeds, which are contained in hard and tough, 20-30 long pods. It is mainly used as food but can be used to feed animals.

Distribution 

Sphenostylis stenocarpa is native to tropical west and central Africa and is cultivated in southern and eastern Africa. It thrives on deep, loose sandy and loamy soils with good organic content and good drainage. It grows better in regions where annual rainfalls range between 800-1400 mm and where temperatures are comprised between 19-27°C (Ecoport, 2009).

Forage management 

The plant flowers after 90 days and the pods mature in 140 to 210 days. The tubers are ready to harvest 150 to 240 days after sowing (Ecocrop, 2009).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

There is relatively little information about the composition of African yam bean products. The seeds are rich in protein (22-25% DM) with a relatively low fibre content (crude fibre <10% DM). The protein is particularly rich in lysine (up to 9% of protein), a value higher than that of soybean.

Potential constraints 

The seeds contain tannins, trypsin inhibitors, hydrogen cyanide, saponins and phytic acid (Akinmutimi et al., 2006). Processes such as heating, soaking or fermenting can be used to decrease antinutritional factors and improve the nutritional value of Sphenostylis stenocarpa products and its by-products (Onyeike et al., 1995).

Poultry 

African yam bean seeds were found to have a higher ME value than soybean meal. Heat treatment (autoclaving or cooking) results in a significant increase in ME (Nwokolo et al., 1985).

Rabbits 

Raw seeds could be included at 10% in weaner rabbit diets as a substitute for soybean meal (Akinmutimi et al., 2006).

Fish 

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

In Nile tilapia fingerlings, African yam bean seeds used at 15 to 60% of the dietary protein (substituting for full fat soybeans) had a depressive effect on growth performance (Alegbeleye et al., 2002).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.0 1.0 90.2 92.5 6
Crude protein % DM 23.4 1.5 21.6 25.9 9
Crude fibre % DM 8.6 1.8 6.0 9.9 4
Ether extract % DM 2.7 1.3 1.1 4.2 6
Ash % DM 4.2 0.7 3.2 5.0 6
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.9 1.0 16.3 18.9 4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.6 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.3 1
Potassium g/kg DM 0.0 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.8 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 23 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 27 1
Copper mg/kg DM 16 1
Iron mg/kg DM 33 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.3 0.2 3.9 4.6 5
Arginine % protein 6.0 0.9 5.1 7.3 5
Aspartic acid % protein 10.3 1.2 8.8 11.5 5
Cystine % protein 2.3 0.2 2.0 2.6 5
Glutamic acid % protein 14.4 1.7 11.8 16.4 5
Glycine % protein 4.3 0.2 4.0 4.5 5
Histidine % protein 4.5 0.5 4.0 5.3 5
Isoleucine % protein 3.9 0.7 2.6 4.5 6
Leucine % protein 7.3 0.3 7.0 7.8 6
Lysine % protein 8.6 0.7 7.4 9.3 6
Methionine % protein 1.3 0.1 1.2 1.4 5
Phenylalanine % protein 5.4 0.4 4.6 5.8 6
Proline % protein 4.5 0.3 4.1 4.8 5
Serine % protein 5.9 0.6 5.0 6.4 5
Threonine % protein 3.8 0.3 3.4 4.2 6
Tryptophan % protein 1.3 1
Tyrosine % protein 4.2 0.3 3.8 4.5 6
Valine % protein 4.6 0.5 3.8 5.3 6
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 55.1 33.4 20.0 86.4 3
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 13.1 1.0 12.0 13.7 3

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Agunbiade et al., 1999; Akinmutimi et al., 2006; Evans et al., 1974; Nwokolo et al., 1985; Nwokolo, 1987; Onyeike et al., 2002

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.8 0.8 88.5 90.8 6
Crude protein % DM 22.9 1.2 21.6 25.3 9
Crude fibre % DM 9.6 9.1 10.0 2
Ether extract % DM 2.3 1.0 1.1 3.6 6
Ash % DM 3.6 0.7 2.8 4.5 6
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.9 18.8 19.0 2 *
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Cystine % protein 2.0 0.1 1.9 2.2 5
Isoleucine % protein 2.4 0.4 1.9 2.7 5
Leucine % protein 7.4 0.5 6.9 7.8 5
Lysine % protein 6.2 1.1 5.1 7.7 5
Methionine % protein 1.3 0.2 1.1 1.6 5
Phenylalanine % protein 4.8 0.3 4.3 5.1 5
Threonine % protein 4.3 0.4 3.8 4.8 5
Tyrosine % protein 4.0 0.2 3.8 4.3 5
Valine % protein 3.6 0.4 3.2 4.0 5
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 41.2 23.9 23.5 74.4 4
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 15.3 15.1 15.5 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Agunbiade et al., 1999; Nwokolo et al., 1985; Onyeike et al., 2002

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 52.5 1
Crude protein % DM 23.5 1
NDF % DM 46.8 1
ADF % DM 20.1 1
Lignin % DM 8.3 1
Ether extract % DM 2.2 1
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 45.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production) % 64 1
ME ruminants (gas production) MJ/kg DM 10.6 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Ajayi et al., 2009

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 11.4 1
Ether extract % DM 2.6 1
Ash % DM 2.6 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.0 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.0 1
Potassium g/kg DM 4.0 1
Sodium g/kg DM 0.7 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.0 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 52 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 30 1
Copper mg/kg DM 23 1
Iron mg/kg DM 200 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Agunbiade et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/704 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:34

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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