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Feedipedia

Rapeseed meal

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 
  • Rapeseed meal, rapeseed oil meal, canola meal, canola seed meal [English]; tourteau de colza déshuilé [French]; Rapsschrot, Rapskuchen [German]; pasta de canola, pasta de colza [Spanish]; farelo de canola [Portuguese]
  • Rapeseed cake, rapeseed oil cake, canola oil cake, canola cake, expeller-pressed rapeseed meal, expeller-pressed canola meal [English]; tourteau de colza gras, tourteau de colza expeller [French];
  • Cold-pressed rapeseed cake, cold-pressed canola meal [English]
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Rapeseed meal - called canola meal in North America, Australia and other countries - is the by-product of the extraction of oil from rapeseeds (Brassica napus L., Brassica rapa L. and Brassica juncea L. and their crosses). It is a protein-rich ingredient that is widely used to feed all classes of livestock. Rapeseed meal is the second oil meal ingredient produced in the world after soybean meal (USDA, 2016). Rapeseed oil used to have a poor reputation due to the presence of erucic acid, which has a bitter taste and was later found to cause health problems. The use of rapeseed meal as an animal feed was also limited by the presence of glucosinolates, which are antinutritional factors detrimental to animal performance. In the 1960-1970s, low-erucic varieties ("0") and low-erucic, low-glucosinolates varieties ("00", double-zero, double low, canola) were developed, allowing rapeseed oil to become a major food oil whereas rapeseed meal and rapeseeds could now be fed to livestock. The first 00 varieties were introduced commercially in Canada in the mid-1970s. In some countries, such as France, 00 varieties became commercially available in the late 1980s (Doré et al., 2006). Low-erucic, low-glucosinolates varieties are now the main types grown worldwide for edible oil, biofuel, industrial oil and lubricants. There are also high-erucic varieties grown for specific industrial purposes (FAO, 2014; Snowdon, 2006). While solvent-extracted rapeseed meal remains the main type of rapeseed meal commercially available, oil-rich rapeseed meals obtained by mechanical pressure only have become more popular since the 2000s, with the development of organic farming and on-farm oil production.

Note: the name "canola" was originally a trademark licensed by the Canadian Canola Council and referred to low erucic/low glucosinolates varieties developed in Canada (Casséus, 2009) but is now used as a generic term for 00 varieties in North America, Australia and other countries. In the text below, the term "rapeseed"  is used to describe 00 varieties and canola varieties except when otherwise specified, as 00 varieties have become the standard in animal feeding. For the same reason, the name "canola" is used below only when the source of the information actually refers to rapeseed meal marketed or described under the name "canola meal".

Distribution 

The world rapeseed meal production was 39.1 million t in 2015/2016 and has almost doubled since 2003 (USDA, 2016). In 2014, the main producer of rapeseed meal was the European Union (13.9 million tons), followed by China (9.9 million t), North America (4.9 million t) and India (3.7 million t). The main users of rapeseed meal were the European Union, China, North America (USA and Canada), and India (FAO, 2016; Oil World, 2015).

Processes 

Solvent-extracted rapeseed meal

Rapeseeds contain 40-45% oil and yield about 55-60% oil meal when fully extracted by crushing followed by solvent extraction (see figure above). The main steps of this process are seed cleaning, seed pre-conditioning, rolling and flaking, seed cooking and pressing to mechanically remove a portion of the oil, solvent extraction (hexane) of the press-cake to remove the remainder of the oil, desolventizing and toasting (Newkirk, 2009). Temperature is one of the main factors affecting the quality of rapeseed meal (see Nutritional attributes on the "Nutritional aspects" tab). Solvent-extracted rapeseed meal should not contain more than 2-3% oil.

Expeller or cold-extracted rapeseed meal

  • Expeller rapeseed meal results from the mechanical extraction of seeds previously conditioned by a heat treatment. It is also called rapeseed press-cake, canola press-cake or double-pressed canola (Newkirk, 2009).  
  • Cold-extracted press-cake: with the growing interest of consumers for cold-pressed rapeseed oil, another process consisting in pressing the seed at low temperature (60°C) yields cold-pressed rapeseed press-cake (Leming et al., 2005).

These types of rapeseed meal may contain highly variable amounts of residual oil, usually more than 5% and up to 20% or more. They are particularly valuable in organic farming (where the use of hexane is prohibited) as source of protein.

Heat treatments

Heating deactivates myrosinase, the enzyme that breaks glucosinolates into toxic aglycones, and degrades 30-70% of the glucosinolates (Daun et al., 1997). High temperatures affect protein quality: this is deleterious in monogastrics as it reduces amino acid digestibility (Newkirk, 2009; Newkirk et al., 2003), and beneficial in ruminants as it reduces ruminal protein degradability (Cetiom, 2001). However, excessive heat processing of rapeseed meal suppressed phytate degradation in the rumen and led to lower availability of dietary phosphorus (Konishi et al., 1999). Steam treatment also reduces protein digestibility in poultry (Cetiom, 2001). Overheating may occur during desolventization and temperatures should not be higher than 100°C (Cetiom, 2001). Cold-pressed rapeseed meal may contain higher amounts of glucosinolates than solvent-extracted meal as glusinolates are not degraded by heat and myrosinase remains active.

Dehulling

Dehulling rapeseeds before crushing results in a rapeseed meal containing more protein and less fibre, thus improving its digestibility and nutritional value (Skiba et al., 1999). This technology was implemented industrially in France in the 1980s but abandoned after a few years due to significant oil losses in the hull fraction and limited market interest in the dehulled meal. However, the search for protein alternatives to soybean has sparked renewed interest in the technology since the 2000s (Carré et al., 2016).

Enzyme treatements

There have been several attemps at improving nutrient availability et at reducing the encapsulating effect of cell wall through the use of enzymes: proteases, xylanases and phytases (Kozlowski et al., 2014).

Addition of processing by-products

By-products of rapeseed processing are sometimes added back into the meal, notably in Canada. Adding gums (that mostly consist of phospholipids) and soapstocks, which are oil-rich components, increase the energy content of the meal and reduce dustiness. Screenings and foreign materials decrease meal quality (Newkirk, 2009). 

Cold-pressed rapeseed meal may contain higher amounts of glucosinolates than solvent-extracted meal as myrosinase remains active due to the lack of heat treatment.

Excessive heat processing of rapeseed meal suppressed phytate degradation in the rumen and led to lower availability of dietary phosphorus (Konishi et al., 1999).

Environmental impact 

Rapeseed meal from genetically-modified (GM) seeds

GM rapeseed cultivars have been developed and are widely used in Canada (95% of the crops) and in the USA (82%) (GMO Compass, 2010). In the European Union, the cultivation of GM rapeseed crops is banned but the seeds, oil and oil meal resulting from the cultivation of certain cultivars can be imported and used as feed and food (EFSA, 2009; European Commission, 2003). The harmonisation of GM rapeseed labelling has been recommended so that livestock farmers can make an informed choice, but no compulsory labelling is required for animal products yielded from livestock fed GM oilseed rape products (European Commission, 2003).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Rapeseed meal is used as source of protein for many types of livestock due to its high protein content (35-44% DM basis). It is often fed as a substitute for soybean meal. Rapeseed protein is poorer in lysine than that of soybean (5.5% vs 6.3% of the crude protein) but is richer in sulphur amino acids (sum of methionine + cystine: 4.3% vs 3% of the crude protein). Rapeseeds are small and contain about 18-21% hulls, and the oil meal contains about 30% hulls (Mejicanos et al., 2016Carré et al., 2016). For that reason, rapeseed meal has a relatively high fibre content: rapeseed meal contains 10-18% DM of crude fibre which is higher than the crude fibre content of all types of soybean meals, but lower than that of other oil meals such as sunflower meal. Its lignin content is also high (about 10% DM) whereas the lignin content of soybean meal is usually lower than 1%. The low lysine and high fibre content tends to limit the use of rapeseed meal in monogastric species and fish species (Bell, 1993; Royer et al., 2011; Newkirk, 2009). Feeding pigs and poultry with rapeseed meal as their only source of supplemental protein often results in lower animal performance (Fan et al., 1996). Solvent-extracted rapeseed meal contains low amounts of residual oil (about 3% DM). Solvent-extracted canola meal from Canada may have a higher oil content due to the reintroduction of gums and soapstocks in the meal in Canadian processing plants (Newkirk, 2009). 

Rapeseed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (60% C18:1 oleic, 21% C18:2 linoleic and 10% C18:3 linolenic), which makes it valuable for human and animal diets (Blair, 2011). In Australia, a comparison of the fatty acid profile of the residual oil expeller and solvent-extracted showed significant differences between the meals: solvent-extracted meal tend to have lower proportion of oleic acid than expeller meal (54 vs 59%) and a higher proportion of linoleic acid (25 vs 22%) (Spragg et al., 2007).

The following table shows the differences between Canadian canola meal and French 00 rapeseed meal for 2011-2013/14 and 2014 respectively.

Values on a 12% moisture basis Canada (CCC, 2015) France (Peyronnet et al., 2014)
Crude protein % 36.7 33.4
Crude fibre % 11.2 14.0
Ether extract % 3.3 2.8
Glucosinolates µmol/g 4.2 6.9

Expeller and cold-pressed rapeseed meal

Rapeseed meal obtained by mechanical pressure only has extremely variable quantities of oil, usually about 7-15% but sometimes as high as 20% DM, resulting in a higher energy value than solvent-extracted meal. Cold-pressed rapeseed meal has usually a higher oil content than expeller rapeseed meal (Skiba et al., 1999; Grageola et al., 2013). Lysine availability was found to be higher in cold-pressed rapeseed meal than in expeller meal, indicating lesser heat damage (Grageola et al.,  2013). Glucosinolates tend to be higher in expeller and cold-pressed rapeseed meal as myrosinase is not (or less) deactivated than in solvent-extracted meal (Skiba et al., 1999). However, another study found cold-pressed meal to have a much lower glucosinolate content, below the maximum level tolerated for optimal pig growth (Grageola et al., 2013).

Dehulling

Dehulling have been shown to improve the nutritional value of rapeseed meal (Baidoo et al., 1985). Dehulling reduced fibre content and increased amino acid and nutrient digestibility in pigs (de Lange et al., 1998) but did not affect the ruminal disappearance of amino acids in ruminants (Mustafa et al., 1997). 

Potential constraints 

Glucosinolates and erucic acid

Rapeseeds used to contain erucic acid, an unpalatable and toxic fatty acid, and glucosinolates, which affect feed intake in ruminants and result in physiological disorders in the liver, kidneys or thyroid glands of monogastrics (see Pigs and Poultry below). In poultry, adverse effects of glucosinolates are pungency, bitterness, anti-thyroid activity and, as a consequence, a reduction of growth and laying performancs. Mortality can be increased, especially in laying hens, due to hemorrhagic liver syndrome (Fenwick, 1982). 

Modern 00 rapeseed / canola cultivars have very low levels of erucic acid and glucosinolates. The glucosinolate content of rapeseeds has been declining steadily, and is now often below 10 μmol/g vs 120 μmol/g for former non-00 cultivars (Peyronnet et al., 2014; Khajali et al., 2012). Surveys conducted in the early 2010s reported averages of 3.9 µmol/g (canola meal) in Canada and 10 µmol/g (rapeseeds) in France (Mejicanos et al., 2016). The use of rapeseed meal in monogastrics (pigs and poultry) diets can now be relatively high without altering feed intake or physiological functions of livestock (Cetiom, 2001). In poultry the limitation is not due to glucosinolates but to the high fibre content (Cetiom, 2001). Some rapeseed cultivars are cultivated for the production of erucic acid and the meal resulting from their extraction should not be fed to animals.

Tannins

Tannins are phenolic compounds that bind with various compounds, including proteins, making them less available to the animal (Bell, 1993). In rapeseeds, most tannins are contained in the seed coat (Lipsa et al., 2012). With pigs it was found that dark hulled seeds were nearly indigestible whereas yellow hulled seeds were reasonably well digested; this was attributed to a lower tannin and lignin content in the brighter seeds (Bell et al., 1982). Lighter varieties of rapeseeds were reported to contain less tannins ("000" varieties) (Auger et al., 2010). Some breeding programmes aim at reducing the thickness of the seed coat, and thus the level of tannins (Lipsa et al., 2012). Dehulled rapeseed meal and rapeseed meal from light-coloured varieties may thus have a lower tannin content. 

Phytic acid

The phosphorus of rapeseed meal is mosty in the form of phytic acid, with a phytic P/total P ratio comprised in the range 67-95% (Selle et al., 2003; Spragg et al., 2007). Phytic acid binds to cations like Zn, Ca, and Fe and reduces their bioavailability (Mejicanos et al., 2016).

Sinapine

Rapeseed meal contain about 1% sinapine, an alkaloidal amine found in the seeds of Brassica species including rapeseeds. In most animals, sinapine is converted into trimethylamine by the micro-organisms in the gastrointestinal tract of the birds, and trimethylamine is itself converted by an enzyme into an odourless form later excreted through urine. Hens with brown-shelled eggs lack that enzyme and, in these breeds, trimethylamine accumulates in the egg, causing them to have a fishy taste (Newkirk, 2009; Bell, 1993). All sources of choline can be transformed in trimethylamine  (Wang et al., 2013), but the tainting effect of rapeseed meal seemed to be more efficient than the choline one (Ward et al., 2009). Sinapine also reduces palatability and has a depressing effect on feed consumption (Mejicanos et al., 2016).

Ruminants 

Rapeseed meal is a common feed ingredient for all classes of ruminant livestock, used as a source of protein and energy (see CCC, 2015 for an exhaustive literature review). Due to its lower protein content, higher fibre and higher protein degradability, rapeseed meal is often considered of significantly lower value than soybean meal. However, several meta-analysis of dairy cattle studies (Huhtanen et al., 2011; Martineau et al., 2013; Martineau et al., 2014) tend to conclude that both the energy value and the protein value of rapeseed meal are higher than previously thought (Evans et al., 2016).

Palatability

Rapeseed meal is a highly palatable source of protein for ruminant animals. In dairy cows, replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal maintained intake (20% rapeseed meal; Maxin et al., 2013) or increased intake (9% rapeseed meal; Broderick et al., 2014). Substituting rapeseed meal for high-protein maize distillers grains maintained intake (20% rapeseed meal; Swanepoel et al., 2014). In beef cattle, diets with 10% rapeseed meal resulted in higher intake than diets based on maize distillers grains or wheat distillers grains (Li et al., 2013). In finishing cattle, diets containing 30% expeller or solvent-extracted rapeseed meal did not cause intake issues (He et al., 2013). In calves, feed intake was similar for diets containing 00 rapeseed meal and diets containing soybean meal. However, intake was reduced for calves fed a diet with a high-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (> 100 µmol/g) (Ravichandiran et al., 2008). In dairy calves, using flavouring agents was found unnecessary when feeding a diet containing rapeseed meal (Terré et al., 2014). Preweaning calves offered low-protein starter pellets and either rapeseed meal or soybean meal chose to consume more soybean pellets than rapeseed pellets (Miller-Cushon et al., 2014).

Nutritional value

Digestibility and energy value

Rapeseed meal is a good source of energy for ruminants. For solvent-extracted rapeseed meal, The Net Energy values for lactation cited in feed tables range from 6.8 to 7.45 MJ/kg DM (NRC, 2001; Sauvant et al., 2004; NorFor, 2016) and correspond roughly to 80% of the Net Energy value for a soybean meal. OM digestibility is about 74-77%. However, it has been suggested that fibre digestibility of rapeseed meal may be undervalued (CCC, 2015) and some experiments have shown than rapeseed meal can result in dairy performance similar to that obtained with soybean meal (Brito et al., 2007b). Further research is needed to determine the correct energy value of rapeseed meal (CCC, 2015). Expeller and cold-pressed rapeseed meal have a higher energy value due to the higher amount of residual oil.

Protein value

Rapeseed meal is a common source of protein for ruminants. Its protein has long been considered as more degradable than that of soybean, but estimates of rumen-undegraded protein (RUP) made using newer methods taking into account the contribution of the soluble-protein fraction to the RUP available to the animal suggest that the RUP (expressed in % of protein) of rapeseed meal is in the 40-56% range, compared to 27-45% for soybean meal (CCC, 2015).

Amino acid value

Rapeseed meal has a good amino acid profile for ruminants, and contributes a significant amount of methionine to diets, which is often the first limiting amino acid in production. In addition, the amino acid profile of the RUP fraction more closely matches requirements for maintenance and milk than other vegetable proteins (CCC, 2015).

Dairy cattle

Solvent-extracted rapeseed meal

Rapeseed meal is an excellent protein supplement for lactating dairy cows and can be included in relatively large amounts in diets for lactating dairy cows. Inclusion rates as high as 20% have been reported with no negative effect on intake and production (Brito et al., 2007b; Swanepoel et al., 2014). A meta-analysis of 122 studies comparing rapeseed meal to soybean meal found that for each additional kilogram of protein supplied in the diet, milk production increased by 3.4 kg with rapeseed meal, and 2.4 kg with soybean meal, showing a 1 kg advantage to rapeseed meal (Huhtanen et al., 2011). Another meta-analysis of 49 studies comparing rapeseed meal with other protein sources found that at the average level of inclusion, rapeseed meal increased milk yield by 1.4 kg when all the other ingredients were considered, but only by 0.7 kg when rapeseed meal was substituted for soybean meal (Martineau et al., 2013). A follow-up of the latter study focused on plasma amino acids suggests that feeding rapeseed meal increases the absorption of essential amino acids, resulting in the higher milk protein secretion and higher protein efficiency (Martineau et al., 2014). Rapeseed meal can be effectively used in combination with maize distillers grains to restore amino acid balance and maximise animal performance (Mulrooney et al., 2009; Swanepoel et al., 2014). Blends of rapeseed meal and wheat distillers grains have also been shown to support high levels of milk production (Chibisa et al., 2012; Chibisa et al., 2013). A comparison between rapeseed meal with wheat distillers grain resulted in similar dairy performances (Mutsvangwa, 2014a; Mutsvangwa, 2014b).

Expeller and cold-pressed rapeseed meal

Expeller or cold-pressed rapeseed meal is a suitable ingredient for dairy cattle. When compared to solvent-extracted rapeseed meal, expeller rapeseed meal resulted in similar or higher milk yield (Beaulieu et al., 1990; Hristov et al., 2011; Jones et al., 2001). Cold-pressed rapeseed meal is a valuable energy and protein source in organic diets (where solvent-extracted meals are forbidden) and could increase milk production when replacing a commercial protein supplement (Johansson et al., 2006). Due to its high oil content, the feeding of expeller rapeseed meal tends to modify the fatty acid profile of milk by reducing saturated fat, increasing the level of oleic acid (C18:1) and decreasing the level of palmitic acid (C16:0) (Jones et al., 2001; Hristov et al., 2011).

Growing cattle

Rapeseed meal is a suitable protein source for growing and finishing cattle. In post-weaning beef calves, a comparison of rapeseed meal and legume seeds (field peas, chickpeas and lentils) showed that the rapeseed meal diet resulted in a lower daily gain and in higher feed:gain ratio (Anderson et al., 2004). In dairy calves, rapeseed meal and soybean meal resulted in similar DM intake and daily gain (Terré et al., 2014). In heifers, a comparison of rapeseed meal and several types of wheat or maize distillers grains showed that all ingredients improved performance and increased DM intake while total tract digestibility for OM and NDF was highest with rapeseed meal (Li et al., 2013). In dairy heifers fed diets containing either soybean meal or rapeseed meal, pregnancy rates were higher for the heifers given rapeseed meal during prepubertal development, than for those fed soybean meal (Gordon et al., 2012). In steers, a similar study found that rapeseed meal improved intake and weight gain and resulted in higher average daily gains than in steers fed distillers grain (Yang et al., 2013). Supplementing grass silage with rapeseed meal increased weight gains in growing beef steers, and increased daily gains and reduced days on feed in finishing steers (Petit et al., 1994). In finishing cattle, 15 or 30% expeller or solvent-extracted rapeseed meal gave similar average daily gain but the 30% rapeseed diet reduced feed efficiency (He et al., 2013).

Beef cows

In grazing beef cows, protein supplementation with either rapeseed meal, sunflower meal or cull beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) resulted in similar calf birth weight, calf weaning weight and cow body condition change, whereas weight loss during gestation was lowest with rapeseed meal (Patterson et al., 1999). Grazing beef cows produced more milk when rapeseed meal was partially substituted for wheat (Auldist et al., 2014).

Sheep

Rapeseed meal has been shown to support growth in sheep. In growing lambs, rapeseed meal was found superior to lupins for weight gain and feed efficiency (Wiese et al., 2003; Malau-Aduli et al., 2009). In lambs fed high-roughage diets, supplementation of hay or silage diets with rapeseed meal or fish meal improved daily gains and feed efficiency, and rapeseed meal appeared to be as effective as fish meal (Agbossamey et al., 1998). In lambs fed diets containing up to 30% rapeseed meal, there were no effects on weight gain or feed intake, despite the fact that thyroid hormone production was lower at the higher inclusion levels of rapeseed meal (Mandiki et al., 1999).

Due to its methionine content, rapeseed meal is an ideal supplement for the production of wool and mohair (Reis et al., 1990).

Pigs 

Rapeseed meal is a high-quality, high-protein feed ingredient for pigs. However, when compared to soybean meal, the lower lysine content, the lower amino acid availability and the higher fibre content and lower energy value (about 80% that of soybean meal) of rapeseed meal makes it less valuable for pigs (Bell, 1993; Aherne et al., 1985; Thacker, 1990). Rapeseed meal is a better source of calcium, selenium and zinc than soybean meal, but a poorer sources of potassium and copper. Its high phytic acid and fibre contents reduce the availability of many mineral elements (Blair, 2007). Rapeseed meal is a good source of vitamins (choline, niacin, riboflavin and biotin) (Blair, 2007). In the past glucosinolates limited the use of rapeseed meal in pig diets (Blair, 2007). An estimate of the tolerable level of glucosinolates in the total diet of pigs is 2.4–2.5 µmol/g (Schöne et al., 1997a, Schöne et al., 1997b; Bell, 1990). Palatability of rapeseed meal is a limiting factor for pigs (Frederick et al., 2014; Bell, 1993). 

Solvent-extracted rapeseed meal

The response of pigs of all ages to rapeseed meal inclusion in diets is generally favourable. It must be noted that recommendations etablished in the 1980-1990s were often conservative (e.g. 5% in starter diets, 10% in sows and finishers, and 15% in growing pigs;  Lewis et al., 2001) as they were based on early studies with meals containing significant amounts of glucosinolates. Recent studies show that rapeseed meal from modern 00 cultivars are much better tolerated by pigs.

Piglets

Rapeseed meal could be included in piglet diets at up to 15-20% (DM basis) without compromising growth performance, organ weights, bone ash or blood parameters (Peñuela Sierra et al., 2015; Parr et al., 2015; Royer et al., 2011).

Growing pigs

It used to be recommanded to include rapeseed meal in grower diets to supply up to 50% of the protein requirements, but recent studies have shown that it is possible to use 100% rapeseed meal as the protein source of growing pig diets. Using rapeseed meal as the sole protein source had no effect on feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs (Roth-Maier et al., 2004). When pig diets (growers or finishing pigs) were formulated in order to get the same amount of digestible lysine from rapeseed meal as from soybean meal, growth performance and carcass quality were similar (Raj et al., 2000; Siljander-Rasi et al., 1996).

Fattening pigs

In fattening pigs, rapeseed meal could be used to completely replace soybean meal without significant changes in growth performance, visceral mass, carcass characteristics, fresh meat quality, or carcass cutability, provided that diets were formulated to contain similar quantities of standardized ileal digestible amino acids (Little et al., 2015; Rojo-Gomez et al., 2001). In France, fattening pigs could be fed up to 18% rapeseed meal and 40% peas as protein sources in order to totally replace soybean meal (Royer et al., 2005).

Sows

In sows, it is important to limit the level of glucosinolates in order to prevent reproduction issues. Sow diets could contain up to 10% rapeseed meal during lactation and gestation without having deleterious effect on sow health, reproductive performance  (including hyperprolific sows) and on piglet growth (Quiniou et al., 2014; King et al., 2001; Jost, 1996; Thacker, 1990; Aherne et al., 1985; Flipot et al., 1977). Rapeseed meal had a positive effect on feed intake during lactation (King et al., 2001). Heat treatment (103°C) of rapeseed meal improved palatability and increased feed intake compared with untreated rapeseed meal (Jost, 1996).

Expeller and cold-pressed meal

Expeller and cold-pressed rapeseed meals have a high oil content and are therefore rich in energy (Blair, 2007). However, such meals may still contain too high glucosinolates content (due to myrosinase activity) to allow the meal to be incorporated into pig diets at maximum levels. It is recommended to set more conservative limits for expeller and cold-pressed rapeseed meal than for traditional solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (Blair, 2007). In France, a comparison of cold-pressed and heat-pressed rapeseed meals (both solvent extracted) found that the former had a higher energy digestibility (+10 points) and digestible energy value (13.6 vs 11.8 MJ/kg DM) (Skiba et al., 1999). In Canada, expeller canola meal fed up to 22.5% inclusion rate to growing pigs provided adequate energy and amino acids. However, it resulted in lower feed intake, average daily gain reduced by 3 g/d per 1% of canola meal inclusion, likely because of increased dietary glucosinolates, and a 3 days delay in reaching slaughter weight, even when the diet was formulated to provide adequate net energy and digestible amino acids. It was suggested to limit expeller rapeseed meal to 22.5% during the first 50 days of the growing period and to 18% during the next 40-day period (Seneviratne et al., 2010). In Australia, a cold-pressed canola meal (glucosinolates 10.5 µmol/kg oil-free DM basis) included in growing-finishing pig diets as a replacement for sweet lupin reduced performance and caused thyroid hypertrophy when included above 15% (Mullan et al., 2000). In Canada, 6-7 kg weaned piglets, including increasing levels of expeller canola meal linearly decreased the digestibility of energy, DM and protein. It was suggested to limit expeller rapeseed meal at 20% in piglet diets (Landero et al., 2012; Seneviratne et al., 2011).

Poultry 

Rapeseed meal is used as a protein source in poultry and an alternative to soybean meal, but its nutritional quality for poultry is usually lower, due to a lower protein and amino acid contents, lower amino acid digestibilities (particularly when the meal is overtheated) and higher fibre content, which is inversely related to metabolizable energy value. Metabolizable energy value of rapeseed meal is 10 to 15% lower than that of soybean meal. Rapeseed meal compares favourably with soybean meal for sulfur-containing amino acids and those two meals tend to complement each other (Newkirk et al., 2003; Anderson-Hafermann et al., 1993). Products resulting from a Maillard reaction during processing are responsible for these low values. Tannins might also reduce amino acid digestibility (Khajali et al., 2012). The use of dietary enzymes in poultry feeds containing rapeseed meal may improve digestion, but results are not completely conclusive (CCC, 2015).

Antinutritional factors

Glucosinolates

Dietary inclusion of rapeseed meal from modern 00 and canola varieties in poultry diets should not exceed 20% in broilers and 15% in layers, so that the dietary glucosinolate content is lower than 1.5 µmol/g.

Sinapine

Rapeseed meal fed to sensitive layers was reported to cause fishy taint when the inclusion rate is higher than 12%, which is above the levels recommanded for layers (Hy-Line International, 2010). No off-flavours have been detected in the carcass.

Broilers

Generally, recommended levels of rapeseed meal do not go beyond 20%. However, in Australia, rapeseed meal from very low glucosinolate varieties could be included in starting chicks at dietary levels ranging from 20 to 30%, and up to 30% for finishing chicks. The recommended inclusion of rapeseed meal in diets also reduced bird abdominal fat portion and intestinal viscosity, without affecting liver and pancreas weight (Perez-Maldonado, 2003). In Pakistan, up to 25% rapeseed meal could be incorporated in broiler diets without any adverse effect on production parameters (Naseem et al., 2006). In India, rapeseed meal could be included up to 30% in broiler diets without any adverse effects on health and performance (Ramesh et al., 2006).

Laying hens

Recommended levels of inclusion in laying hens used to be restricted to the range of 4-10% in the diet (Perez-Maldonado, 2003). However, recent results reported that higher inclusion levels are possible without hampering health and performance (CCC, 2015). In Canada, both solvent-extracted and expeller canola meal well tolerated by laying hens at high (20%) dietary inclusions (Oryschak et al., 2013). In Romania, commercial layers could be fed on 15% canola meal without problem (Ciurescu, 2009). In local breeds of laying hens in Iran, it was reported that including rapeseed meal up to 15-20% had no adverse effects on egg weight, yolk weight and yolk weight ratio (Gheisari et al., 2014). Diets containing 24% rapeseed meal could be fed to commercial line of brown-shell laying hens (Hy-Line) hatched after 2009 without impairing egg quality (no fishy taint) (Hy-Line International, 2010). These findings suggest that brown-shell laying hens could be fed at conventional rates applied to white-shell laying hens, i.e. 8-10% (Hy-Line International, 2010; Perez-Maldonado, 2003).

Turkeys

Rapeseed meal from early canola varieties included up to 45% in partial replacement of soybean meal and fish meal in turkey diets performed similarly to soybean meal for live weight at 42 days but reduced feed efficiency as the level of canola meal increased (Salmon, 1982). In a recent trial, 5 or 10% inclusion of rapeseed meal in fattening turkey diets did not cause any adverse impact on the animal performance. An increase of the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in the meat was positively related to the increase of rapeseed meal in the diet and there was a positive trend of a decrease of the ratio of omega-6:omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Diets including rapeseed meal were cheaper than diets based on soybean meal. It was then recommended to use rapeseed meal for the fattening of hybrid turkeys, at up to 10% in turkey diets (Bedekovic et al., 2014). No off-flavours in the meat were observed when canola meal was fed to turkeys (Larmond et al., 1983).

Rabbits 

Rapeseed meal has been used in rabbit feeding for a long time (Voris et al., 1940; Benoit et al., 1948) and is still used in experimental (Caro et al., 1993; Lebas et al., 2013) and commercial diets (de Blas et al., 2010b).

Early varieties and low-erucic varieties

Until the 1970s, it was recommended to use it in a moderate levels in rabbit diets due to the presence of erucic acid and glucosinolates (Benoit et al., 1948). After the development of low-erucic varieties ("0"), several studies concluded that low-erucic rapeseed meal could be introduced in growing rabbits diets as partial or complete replacement for sunflower meal or soybean meal at up to 12-15% inclusion rate without alteration of growth rate, slaughter yield, thyroid and liver development, or alteration of the meat flavour (Colin et al., 1976; Lebas et al., 1977; Lebas, 1978; Niedzwiadek et al., 1977; Jensen et al., 1983). The same maximum inclusion rate of 12-15% was recommended for breeding rabbits. In some studies, reproduction problems have been reported with levels of 20% and above (Colin et al., 1976; Lebas et al., 1982). 

Low-erucic, low glucosinolates varieties

After 00 rapeseed varieties were introduced, comparisons between 0 and 00 rapeseed meal failed to demonstrate the superiority of 00 varieties for rabbit feeding (Jensen et al., 1979). This is due to the high tolerance of rabbits for glucosinolates: rabbits can tolerate without adverse effects levels of glucosinolates 50% higher than poultry, 2-3 times higher than ruminants and 10 times higher than (Tripathi et al., 2007). Experiments conducted with 00 varieties resulted in the same conclusions as before, i.e. that 00 rapeseed meal could completely replace soybean meal (Throckmorton et al., 1980). Dietary inclusion level of 10-12% of rapeseed meal can be recommended for growing rabbits or breeding does (Mesini, 1997).

One experimented reported a lower growth rate when rapeseed meal replaced 100% soybean meal (20% rapeseed meal in the diet) and recommended a 60% substitution rate (Scapinello et al., 1996). This is due to the lower protein digestibility of rapeseed meal compared to soybean meal, as shown in the following table.

Protein digestibility of rapeseed meal and soybean meal in rabbits and ratio of rapeseed/soybean protein digestibilities

Source Rapeseed meal Soybean meal Ratio
Voris et al., 1940 79 88 90
Voris et al., 1940 79 88 90
Fekete et al., 1986 69 81 85
Villamide et al., 2010 76 83 92
Sauvant et al., 2004 76 83 92
Schlolaut, 1995 79 89 89
de Blas et al., 2010a 78 85 92
Maertens et al., 1984 (0) 76 79 96
Maertens et al., 1984 (00) 77 79 97
Average 76 84 92

Proteins digestibility was similar in 0 and 00 varieties (Maertens et al., 1984). Compared to soybean, rapeseed protein contains just enough lysine to meet rabbit requirements (taking into account a lower protein digestibility) but is richer in sulfur amino acids (above 20% of rabbit requirements, Lebas, 2003). A high inclusion rate of rapeseed meal associated to supplementation with extra methionine may be detrimental to growth (Throckmorton et al., 1980), due to combination of sulfur toxicity (caused by sulfur amino acids) and relative lack of lysine (due to the absence of soybean meal) (Lebas, 1983). Dehulled rapeseed meal can be fed to growing or breeding rabbits with the same efficiency as non-dehulled meal (Lebas et al., 1977; Lebas et al., 1982), but the another source of fibre may need to be introduced in the diet to meet fibre requirements. 

Fish 

Rapeseed meal is used as a source of protein in many fish species. The main issue of rapeseed meal for fish feeding is its high fibre content, which limits its nutritional value for carnivorous fish species (Shafaieipour et al., 2008; Burel et al., 2000a; McCurdy et al., 1992). However, as rapeseed meal is included at rates much lower than 50%, the dietary fibre content is unlikely to exceed 8% and to impair growth performance (Hilton et al., 1986). Glucosinolates appear to be better tolerated by fish species, such as carp, than by swine and poultry: in trout, the most conservative limit is set at 1.4 µmol/g of diet for trout. Rapeseed meals containing very low amounts of glucosinolates could therefore be included at 20-30% (CCC, 2015). The combination of rapeseed meal and soybean meal is often a good solution to replace fish meal. The use of plant protein to replace fish meal in fish diets reduces the price of the diet and do not introduce dioxins and PCBs in the diet, which is reassuring for consumers (Newkirk, 2009).

For these reasons, it has been suggested that rapeseed meal dietary inclusion remains between 10 and 20% in fish diet, and rapeseed meal (with erucic acid) should not be over 5% (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Salmonids

Rapeseed meal has a digestible energy lower than that of soybean meal in salmonid fish (9.6-11.5 vs 13.0 MJ/kg as fed) (Sauvant et al., 2004; NRC, 2011). The amino acid profile of rapeseed protein is the best of the plant protein sources currently available and amino acids are highly digestible (83-99%) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (Anderson et al., 1992; Friedman, 1996). Rapeseed meal has been routinely fed for over 20 years to salmonids (Higgs et al., 1996 cited by Newkirk, 2009). A meta-analysis including 45 feeding experiments where rapeseed meal was fed to salmonids reported that rapeseed meal inclusion linearly decreased specific growth rate and it was thus suggested to limit inclusion rate at 10% in salmonid diets (Collins et al., 2013). Other experiments have more favourable. 

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Rapeseed meal has been extensively assessed in rainbow trout and was mostly found deleterious to rainbow trout performance (Alami-Durante et al., 2010; Burel et al., 2000a; Burel et al., 2001; De Francesco et al., 2004; Drew et al., 2005; Hilton et al., 1986; Leatherland et al., 1988; Satoh et al., 1998). Rapeseed meal included in juvenile rainbow trout diets at 10, 20 and 30% during 9 weeks had deleterious effects at all levels, on hepatosomatic index, growth performance, feed conversion ratio and immunological status of fish (Hernandez et al., 2012). A few studies are exceptions to this trend (Burel et al., 2001; Shafaieipour et al., 2008). Inclusion of rapeseed meal containing 26 µmol/g glucosinolates in juvenile rainbow trout diet at up to 30% had no effect on growth performance, voluntary feed intake, or feed efficiency after 58 days of experimental feeding (Burel et al., 2001). It was possible to include rapeseed meal at 17,5% (diet DM basis) in combination with soybean meal (14.5% diet DM basis) to replace 40% of the protein provided by fish meal (Güroy et al., 2012).

Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

In juvenile chinook salmon diets where rapeseed meal was used to replace 15 or 30% herring meal, growth and feed intake were reduced. The use of low-temperature and high-temperature extruded rapeseed meals could alleviate these deleterious effects. These products also alleviated thyroid alterations in salmons (Satoh et al., 1998).

Catfish

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

In channel catfish, apparent digestibilities of DM, energy and protein of rapeseed meal were 47-69%, 72% and 79% respectively, and those digestibilities were lower than those of soybean meal (Li et al., 2013; Kitagima et al., 2011). Rapeseed meal could be included in juvenile channel catfish diets at up to 31% with no negative effects on performance (Lim et al., 1997).

Australian catfish (Tandanus tandanus)

Australian catfish fed 30 or 45% rapeseed meal to replace fish meal had reduced growth. Supplementation with inorganic P improved animal performance but resulted in water pollution because of higher P losses during digestion (Huynh et al., 2011).

Carps

Rapeseed meal is commonly included in carp diets, which are normally based on plant protein (Newkirk, 2009). However, recent studies held on juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and on juvenile crucian carp (Carassius auratus x Cyprinus carpio) reported that high levels of rapeseed meal (45% or 50% dietary inclusion) had deleterious effects on fish liver and subsequently impaired fish performance (growth, feed intake, feed conversion ratios) and health (blood parameters) (Yuan et al., 2014; Tan QingSong et al., 2013; Cai ChunFang et al., 2013). It was either suggested to limit rapeseed meal inclusion in grass carp diet at 16% or to supplement it with glutathione (400 mg/kg) as glutathione has protective effect on fish liver (Yuan et al., 2014). In fry, it was suggested that rapeseed meal inclusion could reach 15% in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and 22% in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (Yigit et al., 2013; Soares et al., 1998). In 2-year-old common carp, cold-pressed rapeseed meal inclusion rate could be up 33% without affecting growth performance or feed utilization (Mazurkiewicz et al., 2011).

Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Apparent digestibilities of DM, energy and protein in Nile tilapia are higher than in catfish with 67%, 74% and 91% respectively (Li et al., 2013; Kitagima et al., 2011). In China, it was possible to use up to 19% rapeseed meal to replace 30% soybean meal in diets for juvenile hybrid tilapia without compromising growth, feed conversion and protein utilization (Zhou QiCun et al., 2010). In Brazil, up to 24% rapeseed meal were fed to juvenile Nile tilapia with no health or performance issues (Gaiotto et al., 2004). Earlier inclusion levels recommended have been in the 10-25% range (Abdul-Aziz et al., 1999; Higgs et al., 1989). In China, Genetically modified Nile tilapia were fed diets where 75% fish meal was replaced by rapeseed meal (thus representing 55% of the tilapia diet) without impairing growth performance (Luo et al., 2012).

Red seabream (Pagrus auratus)

Canola meal could be included at up to 60% of red seabream diets without detrimental effects on performance (Glencross et al., 2004).

Crustaceans 

Shrimps

A series of experiments on kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) showed that rapeseed meal could be fed to shrimps in order to replace part of fish meal. While it was not possible for rapeseed meal to replace more than 20% fish meal protein as a sole protein source, it could be used in a blend with soybean meal (ratio 4:6)  supplemented with amino acids, phytase and fish solubles, and could replace 85% of the fish meal protein (Mahbuba Bulbul et al., 2016; Mahbuba Bulbul et al., 2015; Mahbuba Bulbul et al., 2012).

These results are in accordance with earlier results obtained on whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) where rapeseed meal was recommended at no more than 15% in the diet to replace menhaden fish meal (Lim et al., 1997). A non-nutritional concern about using rapeseed meal in shrimp feeds is the negative effect that the fibre has on feed pellet water stability.

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Includes canola types

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 88.8 1.1 85.3 92.3 11144  
Crude protein % DM 38.3 1.1 34.8 41.9 11011  
Crude fibre % DM 14.1 1.2 10.4 17.7 10205  
NDF % DM 31.1 3.4 22.6 39.1 259 *
ADF % DM 20.4 1.4 16.4 24.2 266 *
Lignin % DM 9.5 1.1 7.1 12.3 282 *
Ether extract % DM 2.7 0.9 0.6 5.4 8563  
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 4.1 0.6 2.8 5.4 99  
Ash % DM 7.8 0.4 6.6 9.1 2476  
Total sugars % DM 10.4 0.6 9.1 11.9 65  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.4 0.5 18.5 20.5 54 *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 8.5 0.9 6.2 10.9 443  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 12.7 0.9 10.5 14.8 526  
Potassium g/kg DM 13.7 0.8 12.0 14.7 19  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.5 68  
Magnesium g/kg DM 5.7 0.2 5.3 6.0 21  
Manganese mg/kg DM 57 6 46 70 23  
Zinc mg/kg DM 68 8 56 85 32  
Copper mg/kg DM 5 2 2 11 29  
Iron mg/kg DM 192 42 116 258 20  
Sulfur mg/kg DM 8082 1136 6900 9700 20  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 4.3 0.2 4.0 4.7 45  
Arginine % protein 6.0 0.2 5.5 6.5 46  
Aspartic acid % protein 7.2 0.5 6.3 8.1 46  
Cystine % protein 2.3 0.3 1.8 2.9 52  
Glutamic acid % protein 16.8 1.0 14.9 19.1 46  
Glycine % protein 5.0 0.2 4.5 5.5 45  
Histidine % protein 2.6 0.1 2.3 3.0 37  
Isoleucine % protein 4.0 0.2 3.6 4.4 53  
Leucine % protein 6.8 0.3 6.1 7.4 52  
Lysine % protein 5.5 0.3 4.8 6.3 66  
Methionine % protein 2.0 0.1 1.7 2.3 59  
Phenylalanine % protein 3.9 0.1 3.6 4.2 46  
Proline % protein 6.0 0.3 5.4 6.8 29  
Serine % protein 4.4 0.2 4.1 4.9 44  
Threonine % protein 4.3 0.3 3.8 4.9 60  
Tryptophan % protein 1.2 0.1 1.1 1.3 26  
Tyrosine % protein 2.9 0.1 2.8 3.1 23  
Valine % protein 5.1 0.3 4.4 5.7 55  
               
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 5.0 4.2 2.2 9.9 3  
Glucosinolates µmol/g DM 11.66 6.04 0.60 34.42 1428  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 76.5   73.8 76.5 2 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 75.7         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.7         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.2         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 74.7       1  
a (N) % 21.2 6.2 14.0 27.2 4  
b (N) % 65.0 11.4 53.6 80.7 4  
c (N) h-1 0.086 0.047 0.044 0.140 4  
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 66         *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 60 9 43 73 11 *
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 69.1 4.2 65.6 78.7 14 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.4 1.0 12.6 16.0 14 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.3         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.6         *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 80.3 3.8 72.6 88.8 14  
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 7.4   5.5 9.2 2  
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 9.6       1  
               
Fish nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE salmonids MJ/kg DM 12.2 2.4 10.9 15.4 3 *
Energy digestibility, salmonids % 62.2 10.1 51.2 71.0 3  
Nitrogen digestibility, salmonids % 83.7 4.7 78.6 87.9 3  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Aas et al., 1984; AFZ, 2011; Allan et al., 2000; Bach Knudsen, 1997; Baidoo et al., 1987; Barbour et al., 1991; Bell et al., 1991; Bell et al., 1993; Bell et al., 1993; Blair et al., 1986; Borgeson et al., 2006; Bourdon et al., 1982; Bourdon, 1986; Christen et al., 2010; CIRAD, 1991; CIRAD, 1994; CIRAD, 2008; Cowan et al., 1998; DePeters et al., 2000; Fan et al., 1995; Franke et al., 2009; Getachew et al., 2004; Gilbery et al., 2007; Hajen et al., 1993; Imbeah et al., 1988; Kamalak et al., 2005; Kendall et al., 1991; Kerckhove et al., 2011; Lee et al., 1995; Leeson et al., 1974; Li et al., 2013; Liu et al., 1994; Lund et al., 2008; Mariscal Landin, 1992; Masoero et al., 1994; Maupetit et al., 1992; McKinnon et al., 1995; Mulrooney et al., 2009; Mustafa et al., 1997; Mustafa et al., 1999; Muztar et al., 1978; Nadeem et al., 2005; Noblet et al., 1989; Noblet, 2001; Onidol, 1985; Patterson et al., 1999; Petit, 1992; Salmon, 1984; Sharma et al., 1980; Skiba et al., 1999; Skiba et al., 2000; Slominski et al., 1999; Soliva et al., 2005; Thacker et al., 2012; Weisbjerg et al., 1996; Woods et al., 2003; Yin et al., 1993; Zuprizal; Larbier et al., 1991

Last updated on 07/09/2016 16:11:49

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 89.9 2.1 84.8 95.4 374  
Crude protein % DM 35.6 2.6 28.5 42.0 375  
Crude fibre % DM 13.2 1.4 9.6 16.8 335  
NDF % DM 29.9 5.0 23.9 40.4 18 *
ADF % DM 19.7 1.7 16.7 22.4 16 *
Lignin % DM 9.1 1.5 6.6 11.8 19 *
Ether extract % DM 9.2 4.3 5.6 22.6 325  
Ash % DM 6.9 0.7 5.2 8.4 132  
Total sugars % DM 9.8 1.2 8.2 12.2 9  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.8 1.4 18.5 23.9 10 *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 7.9 1.2 5.6 10.1 35  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 11.9 0.8 10.4 13.5 33  
Potassium g/kg DM 12.5   11.5 13.6 2  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 5  
Iron mg/kg DM 73       1  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 4.6 0.1 4.4 4.7 6  
Arginine % protein 6.3 0.3 5.9 6.7 6  
Aspartic acid % protein 7.7 0.2 7.4 7.9 6  
Cystine % protein 2.6 0.5 1.9 3.5 7  
Glutamic acid % protein 17.6 1.6 15.9 19.5 6  
Glycine % protein 5.3 0.1 5.1 5.4 6  
Histidine % protein 2.8 0.2 2.6 3.1 5  
Isoleucine % protein 4.4 0.2 4.2 4.7 6  
Leucine % protein 7.1 0.1 6.9 7.2 6  
Lysine % protein 5.6 0.4 5.0 6.0 7  
Methionine % protein 2.2 0.3 1.8 2.8 7  
Phenylalanine % protein 4.0 0.3 3.4 4.2 6  
Proline % protein 6.3 0.3 5.9 6.7 5  
Serine % protein 4.8 0.4 4.4 5.3 6  
Threonine % protein 4.7 0.2 4.5 5.0 6  
Tryptophan % protein 1.3 0.1 1.2 1.4 4  
Tyrosine % protein 3.2 0.2 3.0 3.4 5  
Valine % protein 5.6 0.2 5.3 5.9 6  
               
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 10.8       1  
Glucosinolates µmol/g DM 15.33 7.21 1.18 31.33 73  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 77.6         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 77.7         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.1         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.5         *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 72       1  
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 70.3 7.7 69.6 90.8 7 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.6 1.5 14.6 19.0 7 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.6         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.0         *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 82.0 4.2 75.0 87.6 7  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Allan et al., 2000; Aufrère et al., 1991; Bach Knudsen, 1997; Bourdon et al., 1979; Bourdon, 1986; CIRAD, 2008; Grala et al., 1999; Keith et al., 1991; Liu et al., 1995; Masoero et al., 1994; Nadeem et al., 2005; Schöne et al., 1996

Last updated on 07/09/2016 16:10:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 90.0 1.4 87.4 93.7 76  
Crude protein % DM 39.1 2.3 34.0 44.4 112  
Crude fibre % DM 12.8 0.8 11.4 14.2 62  
NDF % DM 29.2 3.0 22.0 32.7 37 *
ADF % DM 19.1 1.7 14.3 22.7 41 *
Lignin % DM 8.7 0.7 5.9 8.7 14 *
Ether extract % DM 3.9 0.6 2.5 5.5 76  
Ash % DM 7.8 0.4 7.0 8.6 62  
Total sugars % DM 10.5       1  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.6 0.5 18.9 20.9 26 *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 7.2 0.6 5.7 8.2 26  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 11.6 0.5 10.8 12.5 27  
Potassium g/kg DM 13.7 0.8 12.0 14.7 19  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.6 12  
Magnesium g/kg DM 5.7 0.2 5.4 6.0 19  
Manganese mg/kg DM 57 3 49 63 17  
Zinc mg/kg DM 68 8 56 81 20  
Copper mg/kg DM 5 1 3 8 19  
Iron mg/kg DM 198 39 133 258 18  
Sulfur mg/kg DM 8068 1165 6900 9700 19  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 4.3 0.2 4.0 4.6 18  
Arginine % protein 5.9 0.3 5.5 6.5 24  
Aspartic acid % protein 7.3 0.5 6.3 8.1 19  
Cystine % protein 2.4 0.4 1.8 2.9 22  
Glutamic acid % protein 17.7 0.9 16.0 19.5 19  
Glycine % protein 5.0 0.3 4.5 5.5 19  
Histidine % protein 2.7 0.3 2.3 3.2 13  
Isoleucine % protein 4.0 0.2 3.6 4.3 27  
Leucine % protein 6.9 0.3 6.2 7.6 26  
Lysine % protein 5.6 0.4 4.8 6.5 28  
Methionine % protein 2.0 0.1 1.7 2.2 26  
Phenylalanine % protein 3.9 0.2 3.6 4.2 22  
Proline % protein 5.9 0.4 4.9 6.6 17  
Serine % protein 4.5 0.3 3.6 4.9 19  
Threonine % protein 4.1 0.3 3.6 4.7 30  
Tryptophan % protein 1.2 0.1 1.1 1.3 11  
Tyrosine % protein 3.0 0.1 2.8 3.1 20  
Valine % protein 5.0 0.3 4.4 5.6 28  
               
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Glucosinolates µmol/g DM 13.57 3.66 7.18 21.70 15  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 78.1         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 77.5         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 15.2         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.7         *
a (N) % 18.3       1  
b (N) % 80.7       1  
c (N) h-1 0.044       1  
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 61         *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 52 10 43 73 7 *
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 71.1         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.0         *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.9         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 8.1         *
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 9.2       1  
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 9.6       1  
               
Fish nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE salmonids MJ/kg DM 12.5 2.4 10.9 15.4 3 *
Energy digestibility, salmonids % 62.2 10.1 51.2 71.0 3  
Nitrogen digestibility, salmonids % 83.7 4.7 78.6 87.9 3  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Baidoo et al., 1987; Barbour et al., 1991; Bell et al., 1991; Bell et al., 1993; Bell et al., 1993; Blair et al., 1986; Borgeson et al., 2006; Christen et al., 2010; DePeters et al., 2000; Fan et al., 1995; Getachew et al., 2004; Gilbery et al., 2007; Hajen et al., 1993; Imbeah et al., 1988; Kendall et al., 1991; Kerckhove et al., 2011; Lee et al., 1995; Leeson et al., 1974; Li et al., 2013; McKinnon et al., 1995; Mulrooney et al., 2009; Mustafa et al., 1997; Mustafa et al., 1999; Muztar et al., 1978; Patterson et al., 1999; Petit, 1992; Salmon, 1984; Sharma et al., 1980; Slominski et al., 1999; Thacker et al., 2012; Yin et al., 1993

Last updated on 07/09/2016 16:09:15

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., Sauvant D., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2016. Rapeseed meal. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/52 Last updated on September 27, 2016, 14:38

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