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Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit and by-products

Description and recommendations

Common names

  • Mango fruits, cull mango fruits
  • Mango peels, mango peelings, mango peel meal
  • Mango seeds, mango pits, mango stones, mango seed meal
  • Mango kernels, mango seed kernels
  • Mango kernel meal, mango seed kernel meal
  • Deoiled mango kernel meal, defatted mango kernel meal, deoiled mango seed meal
  • Mango by-products, mango waste

Description

Mango is the most important tropical fruit crop after bananas and plantains (FAO, 2011). The mango fruit is a large fleshy drupe, highly variable in size, shape, colour and taste and weighing up to 1 kg in some cultivars. Green when unripe, the fruit turns orange-reddish as it ripens after 3 to 6 months.The fruit consists of a woody endocarp (pit), a resinous edible mesocarp (flesh) and a thick exocarp (peel). The majority of mango production is consumed fresh and about 1-2% of the production is processed to make products such as juices, nectars, concentrates, jams, jelly powders, fruit bars, flakes and dried fruits (Berardini et al., 2005; Jedele et al., 2003). Mango varieties too fibrous or too soft for fresh consumption can be used for juice making (Hui, 2007).

Mango processing yields about 40-50% of by-products, which can be used to feed livestock (de la Cruz Medina et al., 2002; Sruamsiri et al., 2009). These by-products are also potential sources of pectins and phenolic compounds (antioxydants) (Berardini et al., 2005). The mango kernel contains 7-12% of an oil rich in stearic (24-57%) and oleic (34-56%) acids that can be fractionated to give an olein with excellent emollient properties and a stearin that is one of the few fats that can replace cocoa butter in chocolate in certain countries (including the European Union) (Gunstone, 2006; Schieber et al., 2001).

Mango by-products include:

  • Cull fruits: fresh fruits unsuitable for human consumption.
  • Mango seeds (pits, stones): the seed represents from 20% to 60% of the whole fruit weight, depending on the mango variety. Ground mango seeds can be called mango seed meal.
  • Mango seed kernels (mango kernels): the kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the whole seed (Maisuthisakul et al., 2009). Ground mango kernels can be called mango kernel meal.
  • Deoiled mango kernel meal (deoiled mango seed kernel meal) is the by-product of the extraction of mango oil from the kernels. This product contains only residual oil, unlike mango kernels or seeds.
  • Mango peels: the peels represent 7-24% of the whole fruit weight (Berardini et al., 2005).
  • Mango waste: mango processing units yield mango wastes made of variable proportions of peels, pulp, seeds, and cull fruits.

Note: mango by-products are sometimes named incorrectly.

  • Mango seeds are sometimes called kernels: the crude fibre or ADF content of actual mango kernels (dehulled seeds) should be lower than 5% DM.
  • Mango seeds and kernels typically contain more than 10% DM of oil. A mango seed or kernel meal with a low oil content is a by-product of mango oil extraction.

Distribution

The mango tree originated from South-East Asia is now widespread in tropical and subtropical areas between 30°N and 25°S, from sea level up to 1200 m (Orwa et al., 2009; Sukonthasing et al., 1991). Optimal growth conditions are average day temperature ranging from 24-30°C, annual rainfall between 750-2500 mm with a marked dry period for fruit induction, full-sun exposition on deep, well-drained and poor soils with pH ranging from 5.5 to 7.5. Mango trees are tolerant of drought or flooding conditions. In the subtropics, it can survive frost but young shoots and flowers are killed at temperatures ranging from 4°-12°C. Fruit production will be hampered if the frost comes too late in the season. Mango will not stand acidic or saline soils (Orwa et al., 2009; Sukonthasing et al., 1991).

Mango production in 2010 was 39 million t (including mangosteens and guava). 80% of the world production came from India (40%), China (11%), Thailand, Pakistan, Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, the Philippines, Bangladesh and Nigeria. Most mangoes are consumed locally and only 3% of the production is exported, the main exporters being India and Mexico. Due to the increasing popularity of the fruit in Europe and North America, mango production doubled between 1990 and 2009 and exports saw an eight-fold increase during that period (FAO, 2011; Jedele et al., 2003).

Processes

Fresh fruits

Fresh mangoes spoil rapidly, and several methods for ensiling them have been proposed. In one method, immature fruits are sliced and ensiled with 1% salt in 1.5 m3 pits lined with large leaves. The pits are then tightly covered with leaves and soil (Göhl, 1982). In another method, mangoes are cut into 1.5 cm slices and ensiled for 30 days with maize stover, molasses and urea (Aguilera et al., 1997).

Mango pits and kernels

Mango pits and mango kernels should be soaked and dried (down to 10% moisture) to remove tannins before being fed to livestock (Morton, 1987).

Mango peels

Solid state fermentation with Aspergillus niger has been tested to increase the protein content of mango peels (de la Cruz Medina et al., 2002).

Environmental impact

It can be estimated that mango processing yields between 150,000 and 400,000 t of wastes worldwide, which may cause environmental problems in the vicinity of the plants. The use of mango wastes in livestock feeding is a way of reducing environmental concerns (Jedele et al., 2003; El-Kholy et al., 2008).

Potential constraints

Antinutritional factors

Mango kernels are fairly rich in tannins, which progressively lead to reduced growth rates and less efficient feed utilization when included as a major component in diets for pigs and poultry (Moore, 2004). They also contain cyanogenic glucosides, (64 mg/kg DM), oxalates (42 mg/kg DM) and trypsin inhibitorsy (20 TIU/g DM) (Ravindran et al., 1996). Several treatments (soaking, boiling, HCl or NaOH treatment, autoclaving or HCl followed by Ca(OH)2) may remove tannins and HCN but the more effective proved to be soaking as it removed 61% of the tannins and 84% of HCN (El Boushy et al., 2000).

Choking

Like other fruits of similar size, mango fruits can be dangerous to cattle when swallowed whole, as they may lodge in the oesophagus, causing obstruction and subsequent meteorism (choke bloat) and heart attack (da Silva, 2008; Vishwanatha et al., 2012). Similar problems have been reported with mango seeds in buffaloes (Kumar and al., 2010).

Ethanol intoxication

Cattle fed mangoes in excess or consuming fallen mangoes at the time of harvest can experience difficulties in rumination and dizziness, due to possible ethanol intoxication (Assis et al., 2010).

Dermatitis

Mango peels contain urushiol, a chemical that can cause contact dermatitis in susceptible people (Geller, 1989).

Rancidity

Mango kernels contain oil and must be dried to prevent rancidity (de la Cruz Medina et al., 2002).

Nutritional attributes

Fruits, peels and processing by-products

The chemical composition of mango processing by-products is extremely variable: there are about 1000 mango varieties with different proportions of seeds, hulls, pulp, peels and sugar content. Moreover, mango by-products contain variable (and often unknown) amounts of fruit components. It is therefore difficult to provide accurate or even representative compositions for mango by-products. As a rule they are generally poor (<10% DM) or very poor (<5% DM) in protein. Unripe mango pulp contains starch that turns into sugar when the fruit ripens. The ripe pulp is rich in soluble sugars (70-90%), most of it fructose (60-67% of soluble sugars) (Kansci et al., 2008). The fibre content is highly dependent on the amount of seeds presen it the product: the crude fibre content of peels and pulp ranges from 2 to 16% while mango waste from juice extraction (that contains peels, pulp, whole seeds and whole fruit) has ADF values over 20% DM.

Mango seeds and mango kernels

Mango seeds have a hard fibrous shell containing a kernel rich in oil (6-16% DM of the kernel) and starch (40-50%) (Medina et al., 2010). While the seeds are bulky with a high fibre content (> 20%, Ali et al., 1992), the kernels can be considered as an energy feed and a valuable feedstuff, though still poor in protein (<10% DM) (de la Cruz Medina et al., 2002). The use of mango kernels has been successfully investigated in several animal species, but it is unclear whether they are part of actual livestock diets.

Ruminants

Fresh fruits

Mangoes are palatable to ruminants, and cattle readily eat them when they fall on the ground (Göhl, 1982).

Mango seeds and kernels

Mango seeds can be used fresh, dried or ensiled and ruminants can tolerate concentrates with up to 50% mango seed kernels without adverse effects (Göhl, 1982). In an experiment with sheep, DM digestibility of dried seed kernels was found to be 70% but intake was rather low (1.2% LW). The mango seed kernels showed low palatability probably due to the tannin content. When offered ad libitum to sheep, mango seed kernel intake varied. When mango seed kernels were fed alone their intake represented up to 43% of the total intake.When they were fed in combination with mango peels, their intake was as low as 7% of total intake. In both cases the diets could not sustain animal requirements (Sanon et al., 2013). However, a limited amount of kernels (<10%) mixed with mango peels, rice straw and supplemented with urea would be able to sustain 50 g DWG in sheep (20kg LW) (Sanon et al., 2013; Sanon et al., 2010).

Mango peels

Mango peels can be used fresh, dried or ensiled. Due to their high sugar content, they are palatable to ruminants and can be considered as an energy feed, but the high moisture and acidity of fresh peels may limit their use (Sruamsiri et al., 2009). Because of their low protein content, the addition of a source of nitrogen or protein is necessary to allow an efficient utilisation of the energy in the diet. In order to produce good silage, mango peels have to be mixed with dry materials (straw for example) and a nitrogen source (a legume for example) to increase moisture and protein content to facilitate fermentation (Sruamsiri et al., 2009).

In an experiment with sheep, DM digestibility of dried mango peels was found to be 74% and the mango peels intake reached 2% LW (Sanon et al., 2010). Lower DM digestibility (< 60%) values have been registered for a mango peels+rice straw silage consumed by cattle but nutrient digestibility increased with the inclusion of Leucaena leaves in the diet (Sruamsiri et al., 2009).

Mango wastes

The fresh by-product of mango juice extraction (mixture of peels, stones and cull fruits) was found to have a higher energy value than maize silage and could partly replace energy concentrates in diets for ruminants (Azevêdo et al., 2011). In sheep, supplementing elephant grass silage with increasing amounts (up to 16% of the DMI) of dried mango juice extraction by-product improved the chemical composition of the diet but not its nutritive value, as it reduced intake and the digestibility of some nutrients (Rêgo et al, 2010). A mixture of peels and seed kernels gave a higher intake than peels and kernels separately (Sanon et al., 2010).

Pigs

Fruits

Mangoes are relished by pigs, but the kernels are not well used due to their high tannin content. Fruit silage may be useful for off-season pig feeding (Göhl, 1982).

Peels

Dried mango peels included in finishing pigs diets at 10% had no deleterious effects on feed conversion ratio or animal performance and were found to be cost effective feeds (Rao et al., 2003).

Poultry

Mango seed kernels

The overall chemical composition of mango seed kernels make it suitable for poultry feeding, despite the presence of antinutritional factors. The metabolizable energy value is low in dried raw kernels (7.9 MJ/kg DM) but increased after boiling up to 10.3 MJ/kg DM (Ravindran et al., 1996).

Broilers

In broiler chicks, the inclusion of raw mango seed kernel meal generally results in degraded performance. Inclusion rates as low as 5 to 10% depressed growth and feed intake in some experiments (El-Alaily et al., 1976; Diarra et al., 2008; Teguia, 1995) while performance was maintained at 10% inclusion rate in another trial (Odunsi, 2005). In older animals, raw kernel meal seems to be better consumed and performance can be maintained (Diarra et al., 2008; Odunsi et al., 1997).

The nutritive value of mango kernels was improved by boiling, which restored growth depressed with untreated kernels (Diarra et al., 2008; Joseph et al., 1997). Boiling or autoclaving reduced antinutritional factors as tannins of trypsin inhibitors (Farag, 2001). Soaking without boiling could also reduce antinutritional factors to some extent but was not efficient enough to restore growth up to the level of the control diet (without mango kernels) (Ravindran et al., 1996).

The recommendation for optimum growth is to use preferably boiled mango seed kernels and to keep the inclusion rate below 5% in chicks and below 10% in older animals. However, in slower growing animals higher inclusion levels could be tested.

Layers

The incorporation of 5% raw mango seed kernel meal in layers decreased laying rate and increased weight loss in layers (Odunsi, 2005).

Mango residues

Residues from mango juice industry contain kernels, peels and discarded fruits. This residue has a lower value in poultry than seed kernel alone because of its lower crude protein and fat content, and higher fiber content. Trials on broilers with diets balanced for protein and energy resulted in slightly depressed performance at 2.5% and 5% inclusion level, and in more important performance reduction at higher levels (Vieira et al., 2008).

Rabbits

Mango fruits are commonly used as rabbit feed during the availability season in small scale rabbit production units of different African countries, as in Uganda (Lukefahr, 1998).

Local fresh mango fruits harvested at intermediate maturity stage could replace about 33% of a commercial diet without hampering significantly animal performance (Palma Castillo et al., 2009). It is preferable to make small cuts in the mango peel to make consumption easier by rabbits. Peel and pulp were entirely eaten while the kernel was completely cleaned by rabbits but remained uneaten. Though mango fruit is a palatable source of energy, its protein and fibre contents are very low, which may explain the lower growth rates observed when mango fruits replaced more than 33% of the commercial diet (Palma Castillo et al., 2009).

Other species

Giant West African snail (Archachatina marginata)

Fresh mango peels could be fed successfully to West African snails with no adverse effects but gave lower performance tthan papaya peels (Omole et al., 2004).

Citation

Heuzé V., Tran G., Bastianelli D., Archimède H., Lebas F., 2013. Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit and by-products. Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/516 Last updated on February 19, 2013, 16:33

Tables

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 17.1 16.0 18.2 2
Crude protein % DM 4.7 1.4 2.7 6.0 4
Crude fibre % DM 14.6 7.3 3.8 19.8 4
Ether extract % DM 5.3 3.3 0.5 8.2 4
Ash % DM 7.7 2.7 4.5 9.3 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.9 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.3 0.5 1.8 2.8 3
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.0 0.2 0.9 1.2 3
Potassium g/kg DM 7.7 6.9 8.5 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.2 1.0 1.3 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 86.5 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991; INFIC, 1978; Palma Castillo et al., 2009

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:32

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 17.5 17.3 17.7 2
Crude protein % DM 4.2 1.3 2.9 5.7 5
Crude fibre % DM 6.9 4.2 2.3 13.3 6
Lignin % DM 1.4 1
Ether extract % DM 2.4 2.1 0.3 5.3 5
Ash % DM 3.3 1.3 1.8 4.8 5
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.8 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.9 0.5 1.2 2.2 4
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.1 0.5 0.7 1.8 4
Potassium g/kg DM 13.3 0.8 12.6 14.1 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.5 0.1 1.4 1.5 3
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 97.2 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 79.3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991; Naveen et al., 2007; Oyenuga, 1968

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:32

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 53.5 6.9 49.0 61.5 3
Crude protein % DM 6.4 1.9 5.3 8.5 3
Crude fibre % DM 2.1 0.6 1.7 2.8 3
Ether extract % DM 7.9 1.0 7.0 8.9 3
Ash % DM 3.5 1.6 2.5 5.4 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.9 *
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.6 4.5 4.7 2
Arginine % protein 9.0 8.8 9.2 2
Aspartic acid % protein 10.3 10.0 10.6 2
Cystine % protein 2.3 2.3 2.3 2
Glutamic acid % protein 13.5 10.9 16.0 2
Glycine % protein 4.0 3.9 4.1 2
Histidine % protein 2.7 2.6 2.7 2
Isoleucine % protein 4.6 4.2 4.9 2
Leucine % protein 7.1 7.0 7.2 2
Lysine % protein 5.0 4.5 5.5 2
Methionine % protein 2.2 2.1 2.3 2
Phenylalanine % protein 4.6 4.2 4.9 2
Serine % protein 4.1 4.1 4.2 2
Tryptophan % protein 1.9 1.7 2.0 2
Tyrosine % protein 3.2 3.1 3.4 2
Valine % protein 5.2 5.1 5.3 2
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 3.2 1.9 4.4 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 67.3 1
ME ruminants (FAO, 1982) MJ/kg DM 10.7 1
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 72.1 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 86.9 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.4 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Dhingra et al., 1985; Kehar et al., 1945

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:32

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.9 1.5 89.2 94.0 8
Crude protein % DM 7.5 0.9 6.1 8.8 12
Crude fibre % DM 2.9 2.0 0.2 7.0 9
NDF % DM 23.4 8.2 14.4 30.6 3
ADF % DM 5.8 1
Lignin % DM 1.1 1
Ether extract % DM 12.7 3.3 5.8 16.0 11
Ash % DM 2.9 1.1 1.5 4.9 12
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.2 1.7 17.4 20.7 3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 4.4 2.8 1.0 7.9 4
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.8 1.6 0.8 4.5 4
Potassium g/kg DM 0.6 1
Sodium g/kg DM 1.3 1.1 1.5 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 5.4 4.0 2.1 9.8 3
Manganese mg/kg DM 36 10 61 2
Zinc mg/kg DM 27 0 26 27 3
Copper mg/kg DM 23 15 13 40 3
Iron mg/kg DM 717 53 1380 2
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 75.0 35.6 40.3 121.0 4
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 1.2 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
DM digestibility, ruminants % 70.0 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 85.5 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 17.2 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 10.8 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Ashoush et al., 2011; Barman et al., 2006; Diarra et al., 2008; El-Alaily et al., 1976; Gowda et al., 2004; Joseph et al., 1997; Odunsi, 2005; Rajaguru et al., 1985; Sanon et al., 2010; Teguia, 1995; Waters et al., 1992

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:28

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 15.6 5.6 9.4 20.1 3
Crude protein % DM 6.2 2.5 4.7 9.1 3
Crude fibre % DM 7.7 5.2 10.1 2
NDF % DM 24.8 23.7 25.9 2
ADF % DM 16.6 14.0 19.1 2
Ether extract % DM 1.0 0.5 0.4 1.4 3
Ash % DM 2.8 2.3 3.3 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.7 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 78.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.8 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Cirad, 2008; Omole et al., 2004; Pereira et al., 2008; Rêgo et al., 2010

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:28

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.2 2.9 89.2 95.1 3
Crude protein % DM 4.6 3.6 5.6 2
Crude fibre % DM 12.6 9.3 16.0 2
NDF % DM 35.5 32.2 38.8 2
ADF % DM 17.3 1
Ether extract % DM 3.8 2.2 1.2 5.3 3
Ash % DM 6.1 2.2 3.9 8.3 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.8 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 8.1 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.8 1
Sodium g/kg DM 1.6 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
DM digestibility, ruminants % 74.0 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 70.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.5 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Ali et al., 1992; Ashoush et al., 2011; Sanon et al., 2010

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:28

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.9 91.6 92.2 2
Crude protein % DM 5.0 3.9 6.1 2
Crude fibre % DM 14.6 1
NDF % DM 49.2 37.3 61.2 2
ADF % DM 28.5 21.8 35.2 2
Ether extract % DM 5.1 4.4 5.8 2
Ash % DM 3.9 2.1 5.7 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.6 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.8 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.1 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 86.6 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 84.0 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 15.6 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.1 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 67.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.5 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Rêgo et al., 2010; Vieira et al., 2008

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:42

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.7 1
Crude protein % DM 6.9 5.9 8.0 2
Crude fibre % DM 2.9 2.5 3.2 2
Ether extract % DM 1.4 1.2 1.6 2
Ash % DM 4.3 4.3 4.3 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.1 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.7 1
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 47.5 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 85.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Patil et al., 1982; Ravindran et al., 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:28

References

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