Support Feedipedia

Automatic translation

Who is visiting Feedipedia?

 

Editor area

Blue panic (Panicum antidotale)

Description and recommendations

Common names

Blue panic, blue panic grass, giant panic grass [English], panic bleu [French], pánico azul, hierba pánico azul, hierba pánico gigante [Spanish], ثمام ترياقي [Arabic], कुटकी [Hindi]

Synonyms

Panicum miliare Lam., Panicum proliferum Lam.

Related feed(s)

Description

Blue panic (Panicum antidotale Retz.) is a vigorous, tufted perennial grass that can reach 1.5 m to 3 m high (Ecocrop, 2011; FAO, 2011; Surhone et al., 2010). It is deeply rooted and develops from short, thick and somewhat bulbous rhizomes (FAO, 2011; Partridge, 2003). Its stems are erect, hard, almost woody, swollen at the base, looking like sugarcane stems (Freckmann, 2011). The leaves are smooth, bluish (hence the name blue panic), 15-30 cm long x 4-12 mm wide (Freckmann, 2011; Quattrocchi, 2006). The sheaths are 4-8 cm long and glabrous (Freckmann, 2011). The inflorescence is a 13-30 cm long panicle with 3 mm long spikelets borne on 2.5 mm long woody stalks (FAO, 2011; Freckmann, 2011). Panicum antidotale is mainly used for fodder and grain production. Several cultivars are commercially available (FAO, 2011).

Distribution

Panicum antidotale originated from the Indian subcontinent, Arabian peninsula and Western Asia and is now naturalized in many tropical and subtropical areas. It is cultivated is some countries (FAO, 2011) but is considered a weed in California, Fiji and Hawaii (USDA, 2011). Panicum antidotale is a summer growing grass that benefits from summer rains. It is found in open places (fields, irrigated areas, field borders, sandy dunes, dry river beds) and disturbed areas (wastelands, flooded areas) up to 35°N (FAO, 2011; Quattrocchi, 2006). It is susceptible to frost damage but can survive mild winters,often retaining a greenish colour during this period (FAO, 2011). Optimal growth requirements are an annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 750 mm or irrigation (FAO, 2011; Partridge, 2003). However, Panicum antidotale can withstand less than 130 mm of rain and is very drought-resistant. It is mildly tolerant to temporary flooding (FAO, 2011). Panicum antidotale grows in saline and alkaline soils and both sandy and black cracking clay soils, though it grows better in fertile heavy loams or dark clay soils (FAO, 2011; Partridge, 2003). It responds positively to the addition of N. It is a full sunlight grass but tolerates partial shading. It is fire resistant (FAO, 2011).

Forage management

Establishment and grazing

Panicum antidotale can be sown alone or with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in pastures. The seeds should be drilled in rows (45-100 cm apart) or broadcast before the rainy season. Grass development is rather slow during the first 6-8 weeks but growth is vigorous once the plant is well established. As Panicum antidotale may become woody with maturity, it is recommended to graze it rotationally and heavily in order to maintain its nutritive value (FAO, 2011). Grazing height should be between 10 and 30 cm and rest intervals should vary from 20 to 30 days, depending on moisture conditions (FAO, 2011). In Pakistan, a 2-month clipping interval was shown to favour higher biomass and nutritional value when offered to Nili buffaloes. The two interval also sustained grass vigour (Sarwar et al., 2006). On arid degraded rangelands in Southwestern USA, Panicum antidotale ingested by cattle was viable and germinated well in dung patches after 3 years (Barrow et al., 1992; Barrow et al., 1995).

Yield

Panicum antidotale can yield 10-50 t of fresh material/ha (Ecocrop, 2011). Hay yields vary from 2.5 to 6 t DM/ha under rainfed conditions to almost 5 t/ha under irrigation (FAO, 2011). In Pakistan, under semi-arid conditions, Panicum antidotale had the highest sprouting response and percentage when compared with 8 other forages. Fresh biomass and DM yield was the highest during spring season. Panicum antidotale and Digitaria species (Digitaria eriantha and Digitaria swazilandensis) gave the highest yields (Arshadullah et al., 2009).

Environmental impact

Saline soils utilization

Salt tolerance is an ecological advantage of Panicum antidotale (Al-Solaimani et al., 2009; Khan et al., 2009; Ahmad et al., 2010). Some accessions have been used on salt-affected soils. It is a recommended forage for irrigated pastures that receive moderately saline subsoil water (Khan et al., 2008). Based on seed and forage yields, Panicum antidotale appeared more resistant to high levels of salinity than other range grasses, including blue stem grass (Dichantium annulatum) and buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) (Qadir et al., 2008).

Soil erosion control

Panicum antidotale is used as a windbreak, sown at right angles to the prevailing wind (FAO, 2011; Quattrocchi, 2006).

Agroforestry systems

Panicum antidotale can be grown with various other forages such as Cenchrus biflorus and Dicanthium annulatum in agroforestry systems for dairy production (Prasad et al., 1995).

Potential constraints

At the late flowering stage, Panicum antidotale can acquire a bitter taste and accumulate large amounts of oxalic acid that may cause kidney disorders (Göhl, 1982).

Nutritional attributes

Like other Panicum species, Panicum antidotale has a large range of crude protein content (CP, Panicum antidotale, = 4.0-15.6 % DM; CP, 172 Panicum samples = 1.50-20.1 % DM, with a mean of 7.8 ± 3.8 %,) (Feedipedia, 2011). There are differences between the major Panicum species. The protein content of Panicum antidotale is higher than that of Panicum coloratum (8.19 ± 3.63 % DM, n=141), Panicum phragmitoides (6.80 ± 3.11 % DM, n=18), Panicum turgidum (5.82 ± 3.05 % DM, n=62) and Panicum anabaptistum (3.69 ± 0.92 % DM, n=10). However, these differences should be interpreted carefully since they could be explained by other sources of variation, notably the stage of maturity and environmental conditions. In Panicum species, crude protein is positively correlated with ash content (9.03 ± 4.16 % DM, n=172): the relationship found is:

Ash = 3.88 + 0,512 crude protein (n=416, R²=0.36, RMSE=2.59).

Panicum antidotale is rich in cell walls. Crude fibre content ranges between 31 and 44 % DM (vs 25-50 % for all Panicum species; n= 54). In the Panicum genus, NDF is comprised between 55 and 85 % (72.2 % ± 10.8 % DM, n=66). The NDF/ADF ratio is 1.70. Cell wall and crude protein are negatively correlated with no effect of the species within the Panicum genus. For NDF the relationship found is:

NDF = 79.9 - 0.61 crude protein (n=259, R²=0.18, RMSE=4.8 %).

 

Ruminants

Panicum antidotale provides a palatable pasture and is valuable as a fodder crop for light sandy soils in dry areas (Sarwar et al., 2006). It is readily grazed by livestock before flowering. At flowering, the spikes have hard and woody stalks that decrease palatability rapidly (FAO, 2011; Quattrocchi, 2006). If livestock do not graze the whole stand, the residue should be made into hay to let the regrowth provide new green.material. Panicum antidotale can also be used to make silage (FAO, 2011).

In a comparison of forages in Saudi Arabia, Panicum antidotale was found to have the lowest protein content. Its energy content (estimated in vitro) was higher than that of canary grass (Phalaris spp.) but lower than moringa (Moringa oleifera), jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana)(Bakhashwain et al., 2010). 

The nutritive value of Panicum antidotale declines markedly as it matures but more research is needed to establish predictive equations of its nutritive value based on the stage of maturity. It can be assumed that, approximatively, the crude protein content decreases by 0.6 ± 0.03% per day and that the NDF content increases by 0.9 ± 0.1 per 10 day. The OMD decreases by almost 1.9 ± 0.6% per 10 days (Malik et al., 1967). The OM digestibility of Panicum species was 57.4 ± 5.1 (n=66; Feedbase, 2011), which corresponds to a ME content of 8.03 ± 0.93 MJ/kg DM. There is a negative relationship between OM digestibility and NDF expressed as:

OMD % = 98.3 – 0.54 NDF (R=-0.26, RSD=4.4 %, n=48). 

Predictions with NIRS of in vitro digestibility and crude protein of samples of Panicum antidotale were accurate and the estimation of lignin content was adequate. However, prediction of NDF was rather poor (Rabotnikof et al., 1995).

In Saudi Arabia, blue panic has been used in lactating dairy cows diet, in order to replace alfalfa. In vitro CH4 emissions were lower with blue panic than with alfalfa (7.5 vs. 10.3 ml/g DM). However, cows fed on blue panic yielded less milk (5.44 vs 6.74 kg/d), and had lower fat corrected milk (4.62 vs.5.58kg/d). It was thus concluded that blue panic could not completely replace alfalfa in dairy cows diet (Allam et al., 2013).

Citation

Heuzé V., Sauvant D., Tran G., 2014. Blue panic (Panicum antidotale). Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/413 Last updated on February 13, 2014, 9:47

Tables

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 28.6 6.6 18.6 46.9 36
Crude protein % DM 10.2 3.3 4.0 15.6 39
Crude fibre % DM 36.6 3.7 30.8 44.1 39
NDF % DM 73.7 *
ADF % DM 42.5 *
Lignin % DM 5.9 *
Ether extract % DM 1.6 0.4 0.6 2.5 39
Ash % DM 9.8 2.1 6.6 15.8 40
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.1 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 4.5 1.8 1.7 9.1 36
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.7 1.2 1.2 5.7 36
Potassium g/kg DM 22.1 6.6 13.7 38.6 11
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.0 0.2 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.5 1.2 1.2 4.1 7
Manganese mg/kg DM 127 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 43 33 53 2
Copper mg/kg DM 6 5 7 2
Iron mg/kg DM 533 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 58.5 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 55.9 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991; Gowda et al., 2004; Malik et al., 1967; Sen, 1938

Last updated on 27/11/2012 16:21:47

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.5 0.4 93.1 94.0 6
Crude protein % DM 3.8 1.5 2.8 6.4 6
Crude fibre % DM 40.2 3.3 34.2 43.3 6
NDF % DM 77.6 8.5 63.4 87.0 6 *
ADF % DM 45.7 4.5 38.6 50.3 6 *
Lignin % DM 6.6 1.2 6.6 11.2 6 *
Ether extract % DM 0.8 0.2 0.6 1.1 6
Ash % DM 7.7 8.3 2.2 23.3 6
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.1 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 5.7 8.6 1.0 22.8 6
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.5 3.9 0.5 10.4 6
Potassium g/kg DM 7.0 0.8 6.2 8.1 6
Sodium g/kg DM 0.5 0.6 0.1 1.1 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.8 0.3 1.5 2.1 6
Manganese mg/kg DM 69 18 54 90 3
Zinc mg/kg DM 19 13 10 34 3
Copper mg/kg DM 4 3 3 8 3
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 56.4 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 53.9 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.7 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 27/11/2012 16:24:29

References

References

Ahmad, M. S. A. ; Muhammad Ashraf; Qasim Ali, 2010. Soil salinity as a selection pressure is a key determinant for the evolution of salt tolerance in Blue Panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.). Flora (Jena), 205 (1): 37-45 web icon
Al-Solaimani, S. G. ; El-Nakhlawy, F. S. ; Basahui, G. M., 2009. Effect of irrigation water salinity, irrigation interval and sulphur fertilizer rates on forage yield, yield components and quality of blue panic grass (Panicum antidotale L.). J. King Abdulaziz Univ. - Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture Sciences, 20 (2): 113-135 web icon
Allam, A. M. ; Nagadi, S. A. ; Bakhashwain, A. A. ; Sallam, S. M. A., 2013. Impact of sub-tropical grass grown in arid region on methane emission, milk yield and composition in dairy cows. J. Food Agric. Environ., 11 (2): 620-625 web icon
Arshadullah, M. ; Anwar, M. ; Azim, A., 2009. Evaluation of various exotic grasses in semi-arid conditions of Pabbi hills, Kharian range. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 19 (2): 85-89 web icon
Bakhashwain, A. ; Sallam, S. M. A. ; Allam, A. M., 2010. Nutritive value assessment of some Saudi Arabian foliages by gas production technique in vitro. JKAU: Met., Env. & Arid Land Agric. Sci. 21 (1) : 65-80 web icon
Barrow, J. R. ; Havstad, K. M., 1992. Recovery and germination of gelatin-encapsulated seeds fed to cattle. J. Arid Environ., 22 (4): 395-399 web icon
Barrow, J. R. ; Havstad, K. M., 1995. Natural methods of establishing native plants on arid rangelands. General Technical Report - Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, INT-GTR-315: 44-45 web icon
Das, R. B. ; Paroda, R. S., 1980. Rational utilization of grazing resources for sustained primary and secondary productivity in arid zone of western Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 19 (4): 407-412 web icon
Ecocrop, 2011. Ecocrop database. FAO web icon
FAO, 2011. Grassland Index. A searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. FAO web icon
Freckmann, R. W., 2011. Panicum antidotale. In: B. G. Baldwin et al. (eds.), The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley. web icon
Göhl, B., 1982. Les aliments du bétail sous les tropiques. FAO, Division de Production et Santé Animale, Roma, Italy web icon
Khan, M. A. ; Weber, D. J., 2008. Ecophysiology of high salinity tolerant plants. In: Khan, M. A.; Weber, D. J., Tasks for Vegetation Science vol 40, Springer web icon
Khan, Z. H. ; Ihsan Qadir; Shahid Yaqoob; Khan, R. A. ; Khan, M. A., 2009. Response of range grasses to salinity levels at germination and seedling stage. J. Agric. Res. (Lahore), 47 (2): 179-184 web icon
Krishnakumari, S. ; Thayumanavan, B., 1995. Content of starch and sugars and in vitro digestion of starch by alpha-amylase in five minor millets. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 48 (4): 327-333 web icon
Malik, M. Y. ; Sheikh, A. A., 1967. Studies on the chemical composition of pasture grasses. Pakistan J. Sci., 19: 209
Partridge, I. J., 2003. Better pastures for the tropics and subtropics. Tropical Grassland Society of Australia web icon
Prasad, S. ; Kaushish, S. K. ; Mittal, J. P., 1995. Grazing behaviour of Rathi cows under hot arid conditions. Indian J. Anim. Prod. Management, 11 (1): 49-53
Qadir, I. ; Khan, Z. H. ; Majeed, A. ; Yaqoob, S. ; Khan, R. A. ; Anjum, K., 2008. Effect of salinity on forage production of range grasses. Pakistan J. Sci., 60 (1-2): 59-63 web icon
Quattrocchi, U., 2006. CRC World dictionary of grasses: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA web icon
Rabotnikof, C. M. ; Planas, G. M. ; Silva Colomer, J. ; Stritzler, N. P., 1995. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for predicting forage quality of perennial warm-season grasses in La Pampa, Argentina. Ann. Zootech., 44 (1): 97-100 web icon
Rafay, M.; Khan, R. A.; Yaqoob, S.; Ahmad, M., 2013. Nutritional evaluation of major range grasses from Cholistan Desert. Pakistan J. Nutr., 12 (1): 23-29 web icon
Saini, M. L. ; Jain, P. ; Joshi, U. N., 2007. Morphological characteristics and nutritive value of some grass species in an arid ecosystem. Grass and Forage Sci., 62 (1): 104-108 web icon
Sarwar, M. ; Mahr-un-Nisa; Khan, M. A. ; Mushtaque, M., 2006. Chemical composition, herbage yield and nutritive value of Panicum antidotale and Pennisetum orientale for Nili buffaloes at different clipping intervals. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 19 (2): 176-180 web icon
Sen, K. C., 1938. The nutritive values of Indian cattle feeds and the feeding of animals. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Dehli, Bulletin No. 25, 1-30
Surhone, L. M. ; Tennoe, M. T. ; Henssonow, S. F., 2010. Panicum antidotale. VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller AG & Co. Kg web icon