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Meat and bone meal

Description and recommendations

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Common names

Meat and bone meal, meat meal, slaughterhouse by-product meal

Related feed(s)

Description

Slaughterhouse wastes and dead animals are used to prepare meat and bone meal. Slaughterhouse wastes consist of portions of animals that are not suitable for human consumption, such as carcass trimmings, condemned carcasses, condemned livers, inedible offal (lungs) and bones. Normally hair, hooves and blood are not included. After animals have died their carcasses can be rendered to destroy disease organisms and made also into meat and bone meal.

There can be a wide variation between plants and batches in what goes into the meat and bone meal that is being prepared. If the ash content is high, this indicates that it contains a higher amount of bones and is referred to as meat and bone meal. If the ash content is lower it is referred to as meat meal. Typically when the phosphorus content is above 4.5 % P, then it is called meat and bone meal and when it is below that level it is referred to as meat meal or some other term.

Potential constraints

Prohibition of meat and bone meal in livestock feeding

Meat and bone meal and other processed animal proteins were the vector of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemy in Western Europe in the 1980-1990s (more information on the EU website). For that reason, many countries have restricted the feeding of meat and bone meal and some only allow meat and bone meal derived from monogastric animals to be fed to ruminant animals and vice versa. Notably the use of meat and bone meal for livestock feeding was banned in 2002 in the European Union (Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002) (European Community, 2002).

It is strongly recommended that potential users check their country's regulations to assess the current status of meat and bone meal regarding its utilization in livestock feeding.

In areas where meat and bone meal is authorized for livestock feeding, the use of proper heat treatment is required to control the spread of BSE and other disease agents such as salmonella.

Nutritional attributes

Meat and bone is an excellent source of supplemental protein and has a well-balanced amino acid profile. Digestibility of the protein fraction is normally quite high, ranging from 81 to 87% (Kellems et al., 1998). It is well suited for use in feeding monogastric and provides not only a well-balanced protein source, but also a highly available source of calcium and phosphorus. Excessive heating during processing will reduce the digestibility of the protein fraction. Limiting amino acids for swine when combined with cereal grains are lysine, methionine and threonine and for poultry it is methionine and cystine (Kellems et al., 1998). Meals that have higher protein content, often contains blood and isoleucine may become the first limiting amino acid. The protein quality is lower than fish meal or soybean meal for applications in feeding swine or poultry when used to supplement protein in cereal based diets. Processing temperature was higher correlated with lysine availability, as the temperature increased the lysine availability declined (Batterham et al., 1986).

In addition to the protein (amino acids) meat and bone meal is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus and some other minerals (K, Mg, Na, etc.). The ash content of the meat and bone meal normally ranges from 28 to 36 %; calcium is 7 to 10 % and phosphorus 4.5 to 6 %. When using meat and bone meal as the primary supplemental protein source the mineral levels may limit its use in some diet formulations. Meat and bone meal like with other animal products is a good source of Vitamin B-12.

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Ruminants

Note: feeding meat and bone meal to ruminants is restricted or banned in many countries. The research presented below was carried out before the ban was in effect. It does not constitute an endorsement of the use of meat and bone meal in ruminants.

In ruminants it can readily be used to replace most other supplemental protein sources. The crude protein is less ruminally degradable, and will pass thorough the rumen without being degraded when compared to many other supplemental protein sources. Processing temperature will also effect the availability of the protein fraction. Often pepsin digestibility of the protein fraction is used as a means of determining the extent of processing and availability of the protein fraction. Excessive heating during processing can reduce protein digestibility. Ruminal escape protein ranged from 41.7 to 51 % of CP in one study (Klemesrud et al., 1997) and 51.3 to 60.8 % in another study (Howie et al., 1996).

In ruminant species response to meat and bone meal used to replace other supplemental protein sources were mixed. Goats performed similarly when meat and bone meal replaced fish meal (Kunjikutty et al., 1992). Dietary nitrogen digestibility was found to be lower when meat and bone meal was used to replace soybean meal in diets for sheep (Lee et al., 1986). Summarization of a 127 trials where ruminally by-pass protein sources, including meat and bone meal, were fed to lactation dairy cattle, only 17 % showed an increase in milk production (Santos et al., 1998). Milk production of grazing lactating dairy cattle was increased when supplemented with meat and bone meal (Davison et al., 1990). Methionine is considered to be the limiting amino acid in ruminant applications (Klemesrud et al., 1997).

Pigs

Note: feeding meat and bone meal to pigs is restricted or banned in many countries.

Meat and bone meal when fed to swine lowered performance when replacing soybean meal (Kennedy et al., 1974a; Partanen et al., 1998) and other reports observed no differences (Gomes et al., 1982). When it replaced fish meal performance was found to be similar in swine (Mishev et al., 1981). It was found to be superior to feather meal when used in swine ration formulations (Kalous et al., 1981). Feed conversion and nitrogen digestibility was lower for meat and bone meal as compared to soybean meal in feeding applications in swine (Kennedy et al., 1974b). Efficiency of nutrient utilization decreases as dietary level increases in swine (Partanen et al., 1994).

Poultry

Note: feeding meat and bone meal to poultry is restricted or banned in many countries.

When meat and bone meal replaced fish meal in broiler chicks diets growth was similar, but feed conversion was lower (Al-Mulsi, 1998). Up to 10 % replacement levels for soybean meal in chick diets showed no differences in gain and feed conversion (Leitgeb et al., 1998). In turkeys diets meat and bone meal replaced 20 to 60 % of the soybean meal with no effect on performance (Robaina et al., 1997). Efficiency of nitrogen utilization as compared to soybean meal was less for meat and bone meal in broilers (Kim et al., 1993).

Fish

Note: feeding meat and bone meal to fish is restricted or banned in many countries.

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Digestibility of protein was relatively high (83-89 %) and energy digestibility was lower in trout (68-83 %)(Bureau et al., 1999).

Tilapia

Growth was similar in tilapia when meat and bone meal was fed, but feed conversion and the Protein Efficiency Ratio were lower (El-Sayed, 1998).

Hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis X Morone chrysops)

Crude protein digestibility was similar and energy digestibility was higher than soybean and cottonseed meals in striped bass (Sullivan et al., 1995).

Citation

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/222 Last updated on July 15, 2013, 9:55

Tables

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 95.8 1.5 90.1 98.8 5635
Crude protein % DM 54.9 3.4 45.6 68.6 5661
Ether extract % DM 11.4 1.9 6.8 17.2 2688
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 12.1 1.9 8.0 18.2 2225
Ash % DM 30.5 3.6 15.7 40.6 5412
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.7 0.9 16.2 19.7 54 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 101.1 16.8 42.1 148.2 3883
Phosphorus g/kg DM 48.7 7.7 22.1 68.9 3967
Potassium g/kg DM 4.6 0.7 3.5 6.1 86
Sodium g/kg DM 7.5 1.3 5.2 11.5 909
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.2 0.2 1.9 2.3 18
Manganese mg/kg DM 26 13 8 47 19
Zinc mg/kg DM 114 11 98 142 18
Copper mg/kg DM 21 11 6 42 19
Iron mg/kg DM 615 402 268 1390 35
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.6 0.6 6.4 8.9 129
Arginine % protein 6.9 0.4 6.0 8.1 137
Aspartic acid % protein 7.4 0.5 6.4 8.5 131
Cystine % protein 1.1 0.3 0.6 1.8 136
Glutamic acid % protein 11.9 0.6 10.5 13.3 130
Glycine % protein 12.7 1.3 10.3 15.3 142
Histidine % protein 2.1 0.4 1.4 2.8 125
Isoleucine % protein 2.9 0.2 2.3 3.4 185
Leucine % protein 6.0 0.5 5.2 7.3 176
Lysine % protein 5.0 0.4 4.1 5.9 211
Methionine % protein 1.3 0.1 1.0 1.6 146
Phenylalanine % protein 3.4 0.2 3.0 3.9 163
Proline % protein 8.1 0.6 6.9 9.1 74
Serine % protein 4.0 0.5 3.2 5.1 140
Threonine % protein 3.3 0.3 2.7 4.1 198
Tryptophan % protein 0.6 0.1 0.4 0.9 53
Tyrosine % protein 2.2 0.2 1.9 2.7 98
Valine % protein 4.4 0.4 3.6 5.6 183
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
a (N) % 27.7 26.5 28.9 2
b (N) % 44.4 40.1 48.7 2
c (N) h-1 0.050 0.040 0.060 2
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 52 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 48 11 46 80 7 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 68.7 6.1 54.1 79.9 18
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.1 1.7 9.1 15.2 19 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.9 7.3 10.9 2 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.5 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 81.2 3.1 75.0 86.1 29
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 11.8 0.7 10.6 13.6 26

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

ADAS, 1988; AFZ, 2011; American Meat Institute Foundation, 1960; Batterham et al., 1980; Batterham et al., 1990; Berk et al., 1995; Cave, 1988; CIRAD, 1991; CIRAD, 1994; Cirad, 2008; Clark et al., 1997; De Vuyst et al., 1964; Devendra et al., 1970; Dewar, 1967; El-Sayed, 1998; Erasmus et al., 1994; Furuya et al., 1988; Göhl, 1982; Gowda et al., 2004; Howie et al., 1996; Jacob et al., 1996; Jongbloed et al., 1990; Jorgensen et al., 1984; Kamalak et al., 2005; Karunajeewa et al., 1987; Knabe et al., 1989; Knaus et al., 1998; Landry et al., 1988; Lechevestrier, 1992; Lechevestrier, 1996; Leibholz, 1979; Lessire et al., 1982; Lessire et al., 1984; Madsen et al., 1984; Mantysaari et al., 1989; Mariscal Landin, 1992; Masoero et al., 1994; McNab et al., 1988; Nadeem et al., 2005; Naik, 1967; Nengas et al., 1995; Oluyemi et al., 1976; Parsons, 1986; Partanen et al., 1994; Partanen, 1994; Petit, 1992; Pion, 1970; Pozy et al., 1996; Qiao ShiYan et al., 2004; Rajaguru et al., 1985; Rose et al., 1984; San Juan et al., 1993; Sauer et al., 1989; Schang et al., 1982; Shi et al., 1993; Stangeland, 1997; Steen, 1989; Susmel et al., 1989; Taverner et al., 1983; Vérité et al., 1990; Waldroup et al., 1994; Walker, 1975

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:34

TABLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE.

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.2 2.0 88.6 97.6 1546
Crude protein % DM 62.0 4.5 50.8 72.1 1566
Ether extract % DM 3.7 1.3 1.6 7.5 1213
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 5.3 1.0 3.5 7.5 293
Ash % DM 29.8 4.7 18.8 41.5 1516
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.7 1.2 13.3 17.5 18 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 94.4 22.0 37.6 143.2 1409
Phosphorus g/kg DM 45.8 10.0 19.6 70.0 1407
Potassium g/kg DM 5.1 1.0 2.7 6.5 29
Sodium g/kg DM 7.5 0.9 5.3 10.5 82
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.5 1
Iron mg/kg DM 495 380 611 2
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.3 0.3 6.7 8.0 35
Arginine % protein 6.7 0.2 6.3 7.0 29
Aspartic acid % protein 7.6 0.5 6.8 8.5 36
Cystine % protein 1.2 0.2 0.7 1.7 33
Glutamic acid % protein 11.8 0.5 10.8 12.6 36
Glycine % protein 12.3 1.3 10.0 14.3 36
Histidine % protein 2.7 0.4 1.7 3.3 27
Isoleucine % protein 2.8 0.2 2.3 3.1 36
Leucine % protein 6.2 0.5 5.3 7.4 36
Lysine % protein 5.0 0.4 4.2 6.0 54
Methionine % protein 1.4 0.1 1.2 1.6 40
Phenylalanine % protein 3.5 0.3 3.1 4.0 35
Proline % protein 8.4 0.5 7.5 9.1 18
Serine % protein 4.5 0.2 3.8 5.0 36
Threonine % protein 3.4 0.3 3.0 3.9 38
Tryptophan % protein 0.8 0.1 0.6 0.9 21
Tyrosine % protein 2.3 0.2 2.0 2.6 27
Valine % protein 4.5 0.5 3.6 5.3 36
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 46 45 47 2
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 69.1 15.7 42.5 82.1 5
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.6 2.1 8.5 14.0 5 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.2 1.9 6.1 11.0 6 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 6.5 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 82.1 2.6 79.2 84.9 4
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 11.9 1.5 9.8 13.4 5

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Aufrère et al., 1991; CIRAD, 1991; Green et al., 1989; Han et al., 1976; Lessire et al., 1982; Lessire et al., 1984; Mariscal Landin, 1992; Morgan et al., 1975; Perez et al., 1984; Vervaeke et al., 1989

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:39

TABLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE.

References

References

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