Support Feedipedia

Automatic translation

Who is visiting Feedipedia?

 

Editor area

Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata)

Description and recommendations

Common names

Ribwort plantain, buckhorn, buckhorn plantain, English plantain, llantén menor, petit plantain, ribgrass, tanchagem menor, athan el-kabsh, corrijo, lance-leaved plantain, narrow-leaf plantain (USDA, 2009; Ecoport, 2009).

Related feed(s)

Description

Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) is a stemless herbaceous perennial plant, 20 to 80 cm high. It has a thick rhizome and fibrous roots. Leaves are arranged in dense rosette. Petioles are as long as leaves (10-20 cm long). Leaves are lanceolate, 1 to 3 cm broad and glabrous or sparsely pubescent (more hairy in dry habitats). Inflorescence is a short spike, densely flowered with white flowers. Fruit is a capsule, 3-5 mm long, 1-3 seeded. Seeds are yellow brown to dark brown or black, oblong, 2-3 mm long and mucilaginous when wet (Gurib-Fakim, 2006). The mass of 1000 seeds is 1-1.5 g (Ecoport, 2009).

Its mucilaginous seeds are used as a thickener in cosmetics and ice-cream industry and as gelling agent for tissue culture (cheaper than agar-agar). It may be grown as fodder and is considered to be of better quality than Plantago major. Forage yield of special cultivars in New Zealand may reach 20 t/ha (Gurib-Fakim, 2006).

Distribution

Ribwort plantain originated from Europe and Central Asia. It is now cosmopolitan and naturalized in tropical and southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South America, West Indies, Mascarenes and Madagascar. In the USA, it is referred as a noxious weed in 28 states (USDA, 2009).

It grows in disturbed areas, roadsides, open woodlands and grasslands. It is tolerant of drought but do not withstand saline soils. In pasture stands, it responds well to fertilizer but will not benefit as well if mixed with other plants (Gurib-Fakim, 2006). It will not withstand heavy grazing and may disappear from the sward (Mosquera et al., 1999).

Nutritional attributes

Ribwort plantain has good nutritive value with high vitamin and mineral content (Cu, Ca, Se) (Kostuch et al., 1997; Kozowski et al., 1996; Wilman et al., 1997; Moorhead et al., 2002; Bilbao et al., 2007). It is known to contain compounds such as anti-oxidatives and anti-inflammatories (Al-Mamun et al., 2007).

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Ruminants

Cattle

Ribwort plantain is palatable to cattle (Kozowski et al., 1999) and is recommended in pastures including grasses and legumes as it may improve Cu content (Bilbao et al., 2007). However, it is less consumed than a large variety of grasses or legumes such as prairie grass, kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum), alfafa or white clover (Horadagoda et al., 2009).

In calves, ribwort plantain reduced egg output of gastrointestinal parasites and allowed a slight live weight increase (Sievers et al., 2006).

Sheep

In sheep grazing swards of white clover, ribwort plantain was fairly appreciated (Clark et al., 1985). It proved to be suitable in combination with grass in swards to sustain finishing lambs growth (Moorhead et al., 2002). It may also be recommended as an alternative to hay (Al-Mamun et al., 2007). However, it gave poorer results than chicory (Cichorium intybus) on live weight gain, hot carcass weight (Fraser et al., 1996; Deaker et al., 1994). It had lower effect than chicory in reducing lambs parasites (Knight et al., 1996).

Pigs

Ribwort plantain could be fed to weaned piglets as it is a source of fibre. It could be included up to 8% DM dietary level without deleterious effect on pig performances (Lindberg et al., 2006).

There have been attempts to use ribwort plantain in mixtures of herbs acting as growth promotors in pigs in order to replace antibiotics or probiotics, but the results were not very consistent (Grela et al., 2007; Dedkova et al., 2006; Grela et al., 2001; Grela, 2000).

Citation

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2011. Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata). Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/114 Last updated on April 21, 2011, 14:05

Tables

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 15.7       1  
Crude protein % DM 20.4 7.0 12.2 30.0 8  
Crude fibre % DM 13.6 2.4 11.4 16.1 3  
NDF % DM 41.1 5.4 35.8 48.1 5  
ADF % DM 29.3 5.5 20.4 34.8 5  
Lignin % DM 13.8       1  
Ether extract % DM 2.4 0.9 1.6 3.8 5  
Ash % DM 12.4 1.8 10.7 14.7 4  
Water-soluble carbohydrates % DM 7.2 6.4 3.5 14.6 3  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.5         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 18.2 4.4 15.3 24.6 4  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.8 1.1 1.7 4.3 4  
Potassium g/kg DM 29.7       1  
Copper mg/kg DM 17       1  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
a (N) % 20.0       1  
b (N) % 52.0       1  
c (N) h-1 0.040       1  
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 46         *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 41         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bilbao et al., 2007; Clapham et al., 2005; Dougall et al., 1958; Fulkerson et al., 2008; Gomez Cabrera, 2009; Vargas et al., 1965

Last updated on 02/05/2013 17:27:58

References

References

Al-Mamun, M. ; Tanaka, C. ; Hanai, Y. ; Tamura, Y. ; Sano, H., 2007. Effects of plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) herb and heat exposure on plasma glucose metabolism in sheep. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 20 (6): 894-899 web icon
Al-Mamun, M. ; Hanai, Y. ; Tanaka, C. ; Tamura, Y. ; Sano, H., 2008. Responses of whole body protein synthesis and degradation to plantain herb in sheep exposed to heat. Arch. Tierernähr., 62 (3): 219-229 web icon
Bilbao, E. ; Cid, M. S. ; Brizuela, M. A., 2007. Utilization of Plantago lanceolata L. cv Ceres Tonic by cattle grazing a mixed pasture. Rev. Arg. Prod. Anim., 27 (1): 17-28
Clapham, W. M. ; Foster, J. G. ; Neel, J. P. S. ; Fedders, J. M., 2005. Fatty acid composition of traditional and novel forages. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53: 10068-10073 web icon
Clark, D. A. ; Harris, P. S., 1985. Composition of the diet of sheep grazing swards of differing white clover content and spatial distribution. New Zeal. J. Agric. Res., 28 (2): 233-240
Deaker, J. M. ; Young, M. J. ; Fraser, T. J. ; Rowarth, J. S., 1994. Carcass, liver and kidney characteristics of lambs grazing plantain (Plantago lanceolata), chicory (Cichorium intybus), white clover (Trifolium repens) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 54: 197-200 1994
Dedkova, A. ; Kimicheva, S., 2006. The use of medicinal herb extracts in increasing viability and performance of pigs. Svinovodstvo (Moskva), 5: 25-26
Dougall, H. W. ; Bogdan, A. V., 1958. Browse plants of Kenya - with special reference to those occurring in South Baringo. E. Afr. Agric. For. J., 23 (4): 236-245
Ecoport, 2009. Ecoport database. Ecoport web icon
FAO, 2009. Grassland Index. A searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. FAO web icon
Fraser, T. J. ; Scott, S. M. ; Rowarth, J. S., 1996. Pasture species effects on carcass and meat quality. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 58: 63-66 1996
Fulkerson, W. J. ; Horadagoda, A. ; Neal, J. S. ; Barchia, I. ; Nandra, K. S., 2008. Nutritive value of forage species grown in the warm temperate climate of Australia for dairy cows: Herbs and grain crops. Livest. Sci., 114: 75-83 web icon
Gomez Cabrera, A., 2009. Banco de muestras Pastos españoles. Servicio de Información sobre Alimentos, Universidad de Cordoba web icon
Grela, E. R. ; Czech, A. ; Baranowska, M., 2001. Effectiveness of herbs additive in weaning piglets. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skodowska. Sectio EEE, Horticultura 9 (Supplementum): 249-254
Grela, E. R. ; Gruszczyk, M. ; Czech, A., 2007. Efficacy of herbs mixture use in grower-finisher pig diets. Herba Polonica, 53 (3): 343-349
Grela, E. R., 2000. Influence of herbs mixture in pigs feeding on performance and some lipid parameters in blood and backfat. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio EE Zootechnica, 18: 243-250
Gurib-Fakim, A., 2006. Plantago lanceolata L.. Record from Protabase. Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l'Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands web icon
Horadagoda, A. ; Fulkerson, W. J. ; Nandra, K. S. ; Barchia, I. M., 2009. Grazing preferences by dairy cows for 14 forage species. Anim. Prod. Sci., 49 (7): 586-594 web icon
Kemp, P. D.; Kenyon, P. R.; Morris, S. T., 2010. The use of legume and herb forage species to create high performance pastures for sheep and cattle grazing systems. Rev. Bras. Zoot., 39 (Supplement): 169-174 web icon
Knight, T. L. ; Moss, R. A. ; Fraser, T. J. ; Rowarth, J. S. ; Burton, R. N., 1996. Effect of pasture species on internal parasites of lambs. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 58: 59-62 1996
Kostuch, R. ; Kopec, S. Editor(s): Gregorova, H. ; Jancovic, J. ; Babel'ova, M., 1997. Influence of herbaceous plant species on the grassland fodder quality. Ecological and biological aspects of fodder crop production. Refereed papers from an international research conference held at Nitra, Slovakia, 23 October 1997.: 152-156 1997
Kozowski, S. ; Swedrzynski, A., 1996. Fodder and landscape aspects of herbaceous meadows. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych, 442: 269-276
Kozowski, S. ; Golinski, P. ; Swedrzynska, D., 1999. Plantago lanceolata - a commendable sward component of grasslands?. Management for grassland biodiversity. Proceedings of the International Occasional Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, Warszawa-omza, Poland, 19-23 May, 1997.: 227-231 1997, publ. 1999
Lindberg, J. E. ; Frankow-Lindberg, B. E., 2006. The effect of feeding two grassland herbs on the growth performance of weaned piglets. Sustainable grassland productivity: Proceedings of the 21st General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, Badajoz, Spain, 3-6 April, 2006: 493-495 2006
Moorhead, A. J. E. ; Judson, H. G. ; Stewart, A. V., 2002. Liveweight gain of lambs grazing 'Ceres Tonic' plantain (Plantago lanceolata) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 62: 171-173 2002
Mosquera, R. ; Gonzalez Rodriguez, A., 1999. Effect of management on changes in cultivated grasslands in dairy systems. Investigacion Agraria, Produccion y Proteccion Vegetales, 14 (1-2): 101-106
Sievers, G. ; Nannig, S., 2006. Effect of supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 38 (3): 233-238
USDA, 2009. GRIN - Germplasm Resources Information Network. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland web icon
Vargas, M. ; Urbá, R. ; Enero, R. ; Báez, H. ; Pardo, P. ; Visconti, C., 1965. Composición de alimentos chilenos de uso en ganadería y avicultura. Santiago. Ministerio de Agricultura. Instituto de Investigación Veterinaria.
Wilman, D. ; Derrick, R. W. ; Moseley, G., 1997. Physical breakdown of chickweed, dandelion, dock, ribwort, spurrey and perennial ryegrass when eaten by sheep and when macerated. J. Agric. Sci., 129 (4): 419-428 web icon

Image credits

Image credits

Picture title Credits License
Plantain Gilles Tran, AFZ CC BY 3.0