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Sugarcane bagasse

Description and recommendations

Common names

Bagasse

Description

Bagasse is the residual fibre resulting from the extraction of sugarcane juice. There are two main types of bagasse.

  • Factory bagasse comes from industrial processes involving repeated extraction steps. The bagasse is the fibrous by-product of sugarcane stalks milling for juice extraction. The fibre is passed through sieves to remove fine particles which may be used as a filter aid later in the process, or as a feedstuff (“pith bagasse”). Much of the bagasse provides the energy required for the operation of the factory.
  • Pressed cane stalks, or "farm bagasse" is obtained from on-farm or small factory cane fractionation that use only 2 or 3 crushers. Due to the reduced efficiency of extraction process (50% vs 70% extraction rate), it contains higher amounts of sugar-rich juice and is more valuable for ruminants (Preston, 1995).

Like other fibrous materials, dry bagasse is often used as litter for pigs and poultry. The bagasse is then recycled into organic fertilizer. Sometimes, when local regulations authorise it, poultry litter may be incorporated in ruminant diets as a feedstuff rich in non-protein nitrogen.

Distribution

Bagasse is usually available on the site of sugarcane production in the tropics and subtropics. However, the availability of bagasse to feed animals depends on how much is used as fuel.

Environmental impact

The NaOH treatment method is relatively costly and may cause pollution due to the large quantities of sodium hydroxide required.

In the context of sustainable agriculture, discussions are underway on the strategies for better use of bagasse : feed, manure, fuel (Preston, 2009).

Ruminants

Raw bagasse is a poor, fibrous roughage mostly used for ruminants. Its ingestibility, nutrient density and digestibility (about 30%) are very low. However, it is sometimes the only roughage available on farm. When production targets are high, its use must be accompanied by significant amounts of concentrate. As with all low-quality roughages, supplementation is required to bring minerals, nitrogen and fermentable energy to the rumen for optimal microbial activities, and energy and by-pass protein to be absorbed in intestines. Various methods have been tested and developed in order to increase the digestibility of bagasse.

Steam pressure

Steam pressure is the most efficient method to increase digestibility which appears to have application on an industrial scale. It solubilises the hemicelluloses through the release of acetic acid. This technique is particularly appropriate at the sugar mill where there is surplus steam and where the necessary technical knowledge and equipment are also available. This technology has been applied commercially in intensive cattle fattening in Colombia (though it was later discontinued), Brazil and India (Preston, 1995). In Mauritius, treatment of bagasse with high pressure steam (14 kg/cm² for 5 minutes) increased dry matter digestibilities from 28% to 60% (rumen nylon bag method, 48 hr incubation). In Colombia, steam-treated bagasse fed to zebu steers supplemented with 2-3 kg per 100 kg live weight of Gliricidia sepium foliage and 1-2 kg or ad libitum molasses/urea (10%) mixture resulted in average daily gains of 0.55-0.75 kg/day (Osorio, 1990). In Brazil, the condition that gave the highest in situ digestibility in Jersey cows was a pressure of 19 kg/cm² during 6 minutes, but while steam treating the bagasse nearly doubled is potential degradability, its effective degradability was only 48% in 48 h (Basile et al., 1990).

Chemical treatements

  • NaOH treatment of factory bagasse is an effective method that has been employed in Cuba on a large scale (Preston, 1995). 5-6% NaOH treatment was reported to achieve a 3-4 fold increase in digestibility and was found to be more efficient than urea and combinations or urea and NaOH (Suksombat, 2004). It is however too costly and this technique is not considered sustainable due to cost (Suksombat, 2004) and pollution issues (Preston, 1995).
  • Urea treatment is an interesting method (Hassoun et al., 1990), though not as effective as other treatments as bagasse does not respond to urea treatment as well as cereal straw, probably due to the lack of urease enzyme in bagasse compared with rice straw (Rangnekar, 1988, cited by Suksombat, 2004). However, it can still be cost-effective compared to other methods (Suksombat, 2004).
  • Steam-ammoniation resulted in lower average daily gains in zebu steers and the technique was found less interesting that regular steam pressure (Osorio, 1990). On the other hand, 4% of anhydrous ammonia increased dry matter effective degradability of bagasse in steers from 23% to 36% (Pires et al., 2004)
  • Treating bagasse with sodium sulphate NaS2 did not result in higher degradability (Pires et al., 2004).
  • Treating bagasse with cultures of white-rot fungi species resulted in higher in vitro digestibilities and gas production for certain fungi strains (Okano et al., 2006).

Other bagasse products

Industrially-produced pith bagasse has been studied in Iran. Pith bagasse treated with steam pressure was found to have potential as an alternative feed for lambs and beef and economically interesting, though inclusion levels higher than 33% resulted in decreased feed conversion ratio and average daily gain (Sabbagh Zade et al., 2009 ; Hashemipour et al., 2009). Treatments with NaOH, calcium hydroxyde and ammonia (and various combinations of these treatments) were also found beneficial, resulting in higher digestibility, higher average day gain and lower costs when treated pith bagasse replaced wheat straw (Firdos et al., 1989).

When goats are offered pressed cane stalks, they consume avidly the sugar-rich pith and discard the lignified rind. In studies in the Dominican Republic, goats on a mixed diet of pressed stalk and fresh Gliricidia sepium foliage selected and apparently preferred the pith to the green foliage (Preston et al., 1987). It should be fed in a way that permits selection, e.g. by giving 200% of the expected DM intake. Because of the low nitrogen content, it should be supplemented with molasses-urea, rice polishings, cottonseed cake, or some other by-pass source, and green foliage such as legume tree foliage.

Rabbits

Rabbits require high fibre content feeds and bagasse can be considered as good source of fibre (de Blas et al., 1999) . Bagasse is fed ground to rabbits. In spite of various attempts to determine optimal size particle for rabbits, it is not clear that size particle has an effect on digestion coefficients or animal growth performances (Gomes et al., 2004 ; Vieira et al., 2003a; Vieira et al., 2003b). Bagasse treated with NaOH was also assessed but did not prove increasing rabbits performances (Pereira et al., 2008).

Citation

Heuzé V., Tran G., Archimède H., 2012. Sugarcane bagasse. Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/559 Last updated on March 15, 2012, 11:53

Tables

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 46.0 10.5 31.3 62.9 17
Crude protein % DM 1.8 0.3 1.4 2.4 18
Crude fibre % DM 45.9 3.7 35.8 50.3 19
NDF % DM 86.9 6.1 72.6 91.9 8
ADF % DM 58.4 2.4 55.1 62.2 8
Lignin % DM 12.5 1.1 11.0 13.6 6
Ether extract % DM 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.7 3
Ash % DM 5.9 2.0 2.7 10.6 18
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.4 1.8 0.3 7.1 14
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.6 0.8 0.2 3.3 14
Potassium g/kg DM 1.3 1.0 0.6 3.3 10
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.1 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.8 0.3 0.4 1.4 13
Zinc mg/kg DM 103 1
Copper mg/kg DM 12 1
Iron mg/kg DM 327 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 49.7 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 46.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.6 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.0 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 30 11 17 36 3
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 18.0 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 3.3 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Basile et al., 1990; CIRAD, 1991; Gowda et al., 2004; Hassoun, 2009; Keir et al., 1997; Onwuka et al., 1997; Pozy et al., 1996; Rivero et al., 2004; Suksombat, 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:27

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.6 4.6 82.2 99.2 11
Crude protein % DM 1.8 1.0 0.8 3.9 12
Crude fibre % DM 46.7 8.1 30.2 61.3 12
NDF % DM 83.8 12.5 68.7 106.6 9
ADF % DM 54.5 11.9 40.2 73.7 9
Lignin % DM 10.6 3.4 6.7 15.8 8
Ether extract % DM 0.6 0.2 0.3 1.0 7
Ash % DM 5.9 3.9 2.5 13.7 16
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5 15.2 18.5 2 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.8 1.9 0.5 6.0 8
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.8 0.9 0.1 2.9 8
Potassium g/kg DM 2.2 0.7 1.3 2.9 4
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.8 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 45.1 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 41.9 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.7 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 6.3 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 16.9 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 3.1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; CIRAD, 1991; Dixon, 1986; Elias, 1971; FUSAGx/CRAW, 2009; Krishna, 1985; Krishna, 1985; Ohlde et al., 1982; Parthasathy et al., 1982; Sunvold et al., 1995

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:27

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 33.7 4.9 27.9 45.6 11
Crude protein % DM 6.1 0.6 5.2 7.4 11
Crude fibre % DM 50.9 2.4 45.0 53.4 11
NDF % DM 87.7 2.4 81.0 89.6 11
ADF % DM 64.9 3.2 58.5 68.8 11
Lignin % DM 13.4 1.5 10.7 15.9 11
Ash % DM 4.8 1.7 3.6 9.6 11
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.9 0.2 0.7 1.5 11
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.3 11
Potassium g/kg DM 1.7 0.4 1.1 2.2 11
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.8 0.3 0.6 1.7 11
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 41.8 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:27

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 60.7 60.0 61.3 2
Crude protein % DM 6.0 3.4 8.6 2
NDF % DM 87.2 87.1 87.2 2
ADF % DM 57.1 56.5 57.6 2
Ether extract % DM 0.6 0.4 0.8 2
Ash % DM 3.7 3.0 4.4 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.6 17.6 17.6 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Suksombat, 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:27

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 62.1 60.6 63.5 2
Crude protein % DM 1.3 1.2 1.4 2
NDF % DM 79.3 75.8 82.8 2
ADF % DM 53.1 52.0 54.2 2
Ether extract % DM 0.2 0.1 0.2 2
Ash % DM 10.4 7.6 13.2 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.7 16.3 17.1 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Suksombat, 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:28

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 87.8 1
Crude protein % DM 1.7 1
Crude fibre % DM 45.1 1
Ether extract % DM 1.5 1
Ash % DM 2.5 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.2 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.9 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.4 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 46.7 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 19.3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 3.7 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Elias, 1971

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:28

References

References

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Basile, F. ; Machado, P. F., 1990. Feeding value of steam treated sugar cane bagasse in ruminant rations. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 2 (1): 1-6 web icon
Borget, M., 1965. Livestock feeding using feed produced locally in French Overseas Departments (DOM). Préparation du Vè Plan des D.O.M. Sous-Commission de l'Agriculture de la Pêche et des Forêts. Groupe de Travail N°2 Elevage web icon
Chen, J. C. P. ; Chou, Chung-Chi, 1993. Cane sugar handbook: a manual for cane sugar manufacturers and their chemists. John Wiley and Sons, 1090 p. web icon
de Blas, J. C. ; García, J. ; Carabaño, R., 1999. Role of fibre in rabbit diets. A review. Ann. Zootech., 48 (1): 3-13 web icon
Elias, A., 1971. Personal communication. Instituto de Ciencia Animal, Habana (Cuba)
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Image credits

Image credits

Picture title Credits License
Sugarcane processing and byproducts Valérie Heuzé / AFZ CC BY 3.0