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Feedipedia

Maize grain

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Maize [English]; corn, dent corn, field corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, sweet corn [American English]; maïs [French]; blé d’Inde [Canadian French]; maíz [Spanish]; milho [Portuguese]; mais [Italian, German, Tagalog]; majs [Danish, Swedish]; kukorica [Hungarian]; mielie [Afrikaans]; mhindi [kiswahili]; mısır [Turkish]; ngô [Vietnamese];  ذرة [Arabic]; 玉米 [Chinese]; ذرت [Farsi]; मक्का [Hindi]; トウモロコシ [Japanese]; 옥수수 [Korean]; ਮੱਕੀ [Punjabi]; кукуруза, маи́с [Russian]; ข้าวโพด [Thai]

In this datasheet, and in Feedipedia, the term maize is used instead of corn, as maize is preferred in international usage.

Species 
Description 

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food grain throughout the world, particularly in Africa, Latin America and Asia, and a major feedstuff in developed countries. The maize grain has many food (grain, flour, syrup, oil…) and non-food usages (cosmetics, adhesives, paints, varnishes). Maize starch and oil are also major products (Ecocrop, 2010). The maize grain is a major feed grain and a standard component of livestock diets where it is used as a source of energy. Other grains are typically compared to maize when their nutritional value is estimated. Many by-products of maize processing for flour (hominy feed, bran, germs, oil meal), starch (corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal) and alcohol/biofuel industries (distillers’ dried grains and solubles) can be fed to animals.

Maize breeders have created many cultivars that correspond to specific climatic or agronomic conditions and uses. "Dent corn" maize is the most widely grown type of maize and the one typically used for feed. Other types (flint corn, popcorn, sweet corn, flour corn) are more intended for food uses. Some varieties have been created to improve the industrial or nutritional value: high lysine, high tryptophan, high oil, high amylose, low phytate, etc. Brown midrib maize has a lower lignin content resulting in an increased digestibility in livestock. Genetically-modified (GM) maize varieties have been designed to improve grain performances (herbicide resistance, pest resistance, higher yields).

Distribution 

Maize is native to Central America (Oaxaca, Mexico) where it was domesticated, possibly as early as 5,500 to 10,000 BC. It later spread to Central America, the Caribbean, South America and North America. Through genetic selection and hybridation, it now grows worldwide between 58°N in Canada and Russia and 40°S in Chile and Argentina, from sea level up to an altitude of 3800 m in the Andean mountains (Ecoport, 2010). Optimal growth conditions are average day-temperature of 18-21°C, annual rainfall of more than 750 mm, and deep, well-drained rich soils.

Maize can withstand annual rainfall ranging from 230 to 4100 mm, with soil pH between 4.3 and 8.7, and a great variety of soils. Frost kills the plants. Drought is detrimental at flowering as it affects pollination and impairs yields. Maize has no tolerance to flooding (FAO, 2009; Duke, 1983).

Processes 

Maize grain is fed as dry maize grain (less than 15% moisture) or high-moisture maize grain (22 to 28% moisture). When maize is dried, it should not be heated over 150°C, since this reduces nutritive value and acceptability to pigs (Patience et al., 1995).

Dry or high-moisture maize grain can be available as:

  • unprocessed = whole grain, shelled
  • finely ground = fine meal
  • cracked = medium particle size
  • steam-rolled = moistened and flattened grains
  • steam-flaked = heated, moistened and pressured grains (flakes)
Each form has its advantages and disadvantages when feeding livestock (Blezinger, 2005).
Forage management 

Maize grain yield averages 3.6 t/ha in the world (highest yields are 7-11 t/ha) (Ecocrop, 2010).

Environmental impact 

Soil depletion

Maize crops drain nutrients from the soil, do not compete well with weeds after the seedling stage and are subject to many diseases and pests. In consequence, the cultivation of high-producing maize requires high fertilizer levels as well as herbicides, pesticides and fungicides, which are deleterious to biodiversity and soil conservation. Heavy fertilizer applications can cause nitrate leaching and soil erosion. Herbicides may contaminate the groundwater while pesticides alter biodiversity (European Commission, 2000). In developing countries where fertilizers are too expensive for general use, the nutrient uptake is higher than when fertilizers are regularly used, thus reducing soil fertility and causing further soil degradation (CIMMYT, 2009).

Genetically modified maize

The debate about the environmental impact of GM crops is complex and a full discussion of the issue is beyond the scope of this datasheet. Genetically-modified (GM) maize varieties that are herbicide-resistant or pest-tolerant have been commercialised since 1996, and their potential environmental impact has been the subject of considerable debate. Some positive impacts have been reported for GM maize, notably a reduction in herbicide and pesticide use, and certain benefits for wildlife (Edwards et al., 2009). However, potential negative effects have also been alleged, including the alteration of the DNA of soil microflora, and deleterious impacts on useful insects such as butterflies and bees, or on non-GM plants (including maize) through genome transfer (Dale et al., 2002).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Maize grain is palatable and suitable for all livestock. It is the most valuable energy source among cereals. It has a high starch content (about 65%), about 4% oil and a low fibre content (10% NDF) (Sauvant et al., 2004).

Maize starch is less readily fermentable than other cereal starches (30% escapes rumen fermentation). Proteins in maize grain are mainly zein and glutelin, and are situated in the endosperm and germ respectively. Zein, the most important, is deficient in lysine and tryptophan so amino acid supplementation is often necessary. Maize varieties such as Opaque-2 or Flour-2 have been designed to have a better amino acid profile (McDonald et al., 2002).

Maize grain is low in calcium and supplementation is required. 75% of phosphorus is bound in phytate, which is not readily available to livestock and also reduces calcium availability (Sauvant et al., 2004; Blair, 2008). Low-phytate hybrids have been developed to increase P availability in monogastrics (Veum et al., 2001).

Yellow maize has a higher vitamin A content than white maize. Vitamin A deficiency is of little importance in ruminants but it may have deleterious effects in pigs and poultry if not adequately supplemented with a source of vitamin A. Yellow maize is best for monogastrics (Piccioni, 1965). Maize grain is generally poor in available niacin.

Potential constraints 

Maize quality has to be carefully assessed, particularly as moulding and rancidity may occur rapidly after grinding.

Acidosis

Feeding ruminants with high-starch feeds may cause acidosis. The fermentation of large amounts of starch in the rumen lowers rumen pH, causing rumen stasis, a decrease in forage digestion, diarrhoea and dehydration, forerunners of metabolic acidosis. However, maize starch is not as readily fermentable as the starch of other grains such as barley and wheat, thus reducing the incidence rumen acidosis.

Mycotoxins

Maize is susceptible to various moulds producing mycotoxins that have deleterious effects on animal health. Grain quality must be assessed before feeding livestock, and tests exist to measure mycotoxin contamination (Herrman, 2002).

  • Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus, which invades maize when drought or earworm stresses occur. Aflatoxins reduce growth and feed efficiency. They also cause liver disorders, abortion and are lethal to pigs at high levels. Aflatoxin M1 may contaminate milk from cows fed on damaged maize.
  • Deoxynivalenol is produced by Fusarium sp. infestations that occur when the weather is warm (25-30°C) and moisture is high. Signs of toxicosis are weight loss, lower feed conversion, vomiting, bloody diarrhoea, severe dermatitis, lower egg production in hens, abortion in mammals and finally death. Pigs are more susceptible to vomitoxin than cattle and poultry.
  • Zearalenone is produced by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species in warm and moist conditions. It has deleterious effects on pig sexual characteristics (swollen vulva in sows, enlarged mammary glands in young pigs) and reproductive performance (embryonic death, lower fetal development, lower litter size).
  • Ochratoxin occurs when high moisture maize is infested by Aspergillus or Penicillium. It is thus recommended to store the grains in dry (less than 22% moisture) and cool conditions. Ochratoxin causes renal disorder in pigs and decreases growth, egg shell quality and egg production in poultry. Adding ascorbic acid may alleviate toxicosis in laying hens.
  • Fumonisins are typical of maize and are produced by Fusarium verticilloides and other Fusarium species. Fumonisins are carcinogenic in pigs and humans, and they cause pulmonary oedema in pigs. In horses, they induce leukoencephalomalacia (lower intake, lameness, oral and facial paralysis, seizure and eventual death). Ammoniation may reduce fumonisin levels.

Acid-resistant Escherichia coli

Cattle fed mostly maize grain had a lower colonic pH and more acid-resistant Escherichia coli than cattle fed only hay (Diez-Gonzalez et al., 1998).

Genetically-modified varieties

The potential health issues with GM maize and other GM foods is a matter of considerable debate. While most studies have failed to show deleterious side-effects to the use of GM maize (EFSA GMO Panel, 2008), these varieties remain controversial and subject to legal authorization in some countries.

Ruminants 

Maize grain is a valued energy source in ruminants. In dairy cows, it can support high milk yields because of its high starch content. Providing adequate amounts of starch also promotes rumen bacterial growth, thus enhancing forage digestibility, rumen cycling and subsequent feed intakes. As it contains a slowly degrading starch in the rumen, maize grain has a low acidogenic value and provides by-pass starch, allowing glucose absorption in the small intestine. However, because it is low in protein, maize grain has to be properly complemented with a protein source to fulfil dairy cattle requirements. High yielding cows fed on maize grain require high quality forage such as alfalfa or a combination of low quality forage (hay) and soybean meal (as a protein source). For high milk production, steam-flaked maize grains are fed to cows since it is more digestible and more palatable, and improves milk yield and milk protein yield (Theurer et al., 1999).

In steers, maize grain is frequently the main concentrate: it is highly digestible and it is the most palatable cereal for cattle. High moisture maize and steam-flaked maize were reported to give better growth rates than dry-rolled maize when fed in finishing rations to steers (Mader et al., 1999).

Pigs 

In pigs, maize is the reference to which other energy sources are compared. It is of utmost value for growing and fattening pigs, for sows and breeding stock, provided that its protein, vitamin and mineral deficiencies are counterbalanced by appropriate feed supplements (with proteins able to correct the amino acid imbalances of the maize).

Maize grain can be fed whole or ground to pigs. If ground, medium-sized particles will be preferred. Yellow maize contains poly-unsaturated fatty acids and may cause soft fat in pigs as well as yellower fat (due to cryptoxanthin) that may be considered undesirable (Patience et al., 1995).

Poultry 

In poultry, maize is appreciated for its highly digestible starch, low fibre and relatively high oil content, resulting in high metabolizable energy values. It is fed at high levels in broilers and laying hens. Maize oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid). In poultry, white and yellow maize have equivalent energy, protein and mineral values. Yellow maize contains more carotene and cryptoxanthin which are beneficial to yolk pigmentation. Moreover, birds are attracted to the yellow colour of the grain that can be ground, medium-size or fine, for inclusion in pelleted diets.

In hot climates it is often possible to replace maize by less expensive and more easily available feedstuffs. Barley can totally replace maize in broiler diets, as can sorghum grain, pearl millet and broken rice, but triticale should only partially replace maize since it reduces growth rates (Daghir, 2008).

Fish 

Maize is used in fish diets. It is mostly ground to make meal or pellets. It is easy to pelletize but pellets are prone to abrasion. Digestible energy of maize meal is rather low for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) while it is high for carp (Cyprinus carpio). Digestible energy and other nutrient digestibilities can be improved through gelatinization of maize starch. Feeding rainbow trout fingerlings with maize meal increased animal performance (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 86.3 1.0 81.8 90.5 11791
Crude protein % DM 9.4 0.8 7.2 12.4 11175
Crude fibre % DM 2.5 0.4 1.6 3.8 4230
NDF % DM 12.2 1.4 9.6 15.3 261
ADF % DM 3.0 0.4 2.3 3.7 259
Lignin % DM 0.6 0.2 0.2 1.2 213
Ether extract % DM 4.3 0.4 3.1 5.7 5643
Ash % DM 1.4 0.1 1.1 2.1 3508
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 73.4 1.6 67.5 78.8 9662
Total sugars % DM 2.1 0.6 1.1 3.5 481
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 0.1 18.6 19.1 92 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.5 0.3 0.1 1.4 547
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.0 0.2 2.4 3.6 881
Potassium g/kg DM 3.9 0.3 3.3 4.4 29
Sodium g/kg DM 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 113
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.2 0.1 1.0 1.4 28
Manganese mg/kg DM 5 2 3 9 11
Zinc mg/kg DM 21 8 9 38 10
Copper mg/kg DM 2 0 2 3 15
Iron mg/kg DM 37 12 23 73 16
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.4 0.3 6.9 8.0 74
Arginine % protein 4.5 0.4 3.6 5.2 75
Aspartic acid % protein 6.5 0.3 5.6 7.1 74
Cystine % protein 2.3 0.2 1.9 2.8 100
Glutamic acid % protein 18.2 0.9 16.8 20.1 74
Glycine % protein 3.7 0.3 3.3 4.2 72
Histidine % protein 2.8 0.2 2.5 3.1 65
Isoleucine % protein 3.5 0.2 3.2 3.9 77
Leucine % protein 12.0 0.7 10.8 13.4 76
Lysine % protein 3.1 0.3 2.6 3.7 184
Methionine % protein 2.1 0.2 1.8 2.4 108
Phenylalanine % protein 4.8 0.2 4.4 5.2 77
Proline % protein 8.8 0.4 8.1 9.8 47
Serine % protein 4.8 0.2 4.3 5.2 74
Threonine % protein 3.6 0.1 3.3 3.9 83
Tryptophan % protein 0.7 0.1 0.6 0.8 50
Tyrosine % protein 3.7 0.4 3.1 4.4 54
Valine % protein 4.8 0.2 4.4 5.3 77
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.5 88.5 89.5 2 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 86.1 86.1 87.5 2 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.6 13.6 13.8 2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 66.3 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 88.0 2.7 80.0 88.9 10 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.5 0.5 15.0 16.7 10 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.1 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 80.8 5.0 78.9 90.0 5 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 15.4 0.2 15.4 16.1 17 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 15.1 15.1 15.6 2 *
 
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 78.2 74.2 78.2 2 *
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 14.6 0.8 14.1 15.6 3
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 14.3 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

ADAS, 1988; AFZ, 2011; Antongiovanni et al., 1980; Aufrère et al., 1988; Barrier-Guillot et al., 1993; Baudet et al., 1986; Belibasakis, 1984; Benchaar et al., 1991; Bochi-Brum et al., 1999; Bourdon et al., 1973; Bourdon et al., 1982; Bourdon et al., 1982; Carré et al., 1986; Castaing et al., 2003; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; Conan et al., 1992; Dönicke et al., 1995; Etienne, 1985; Fernandez Carmona et al., 1996; Février et al., 1972; Frigg, 1976; Lessire et al., 2003; Maupetit et al., 1992; Métayer et al., 2001; Noblet et al., 1997; Noblet et al., 2000; Noblet, 2001; Perez et al., 1979; Perez et al., 1981; Perez, 1989; Piras et al., 1995; Sequeira et al., 2000; Skiba et al., 1999; Skiba et al., 2000; Skiba et al., 2005; Umucalilar et al., 2002; Van Cauwenberghe et al., 1996; Wainman et al., 1984; Wolter et al., 1982

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:26

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 86.2 1.1 84.9 90.6 78
Crude protein % DM 8.8 0.5 8.1 10.5 78
Crude fibre % DM 2.7 0.4 2.0 3.4 7
NDF % DM 13.6 2.3 10.0 16.6 6
ADF % DM 3.8 0.2 3.6 4.1 6
Lignin % DM 0.8 0.3 0.5 1.1 4
Ether extract % DM 4.3 0.2 3.8 4.7 58
Ash % DM 1.6 0.3 1.3 2.1 10
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 73.5 0.7 71.5 75.0 57
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 0.4 17.9 19.0 6 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.8 0.5 1.0 2.0 4
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.7 0.5 2.0 3.2 6
Potassium g/kg DM 2.6 1
Sodium g/kg DM 0.0 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 3.8 1
Arginine % protein 3.0 1
Aspartic acid % protein 5.3 1
Cystine % protein 2.2 1
Glutamic acid % protein 9.4 1
Glycine % protein 2.4 1
Histidine % protein 0.6 1
Isoleucine % protein 1.5 1
Leucine % protein 5.9 1
Lysine % protein 1.3 1
Methionine % protein 2.1 1
Phenylalanine % protein 2.9 1
Proline % protein 7.9 1
Serine % protein 3.0 1
Threonine % protein 2.0 1
Tyrosine % protein 1.6 1
Valine % protein 2.9 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.1 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 85.6 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.5 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 65.3 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 57 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 86.8 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.9 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 79.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Arbouche et al., 2009; Arieli et al., 1989; El-Alaily et al., 1976; Kamel et al., 1981; Nadeem et al., 2005; Taghizadeh et al., 2005

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:26

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 90.0 2.2 85.4 95.2 612
Crude protein % DM 8.0 3.1 2.0 12.9 618
Crude fibre % DM 2.4 0.5 1.7 3.6 183
NDF % DM 15.5 11.7 9.1 55.1 14
ADF % DM 3.2 0.8 2.3 5.0 18
Lignin % DM 0.5 0.4 0.0 1.3 18
Ether extract % DM 4.5 0.4 3.5 5.6 197
Ash % DM 4.3 4.5 1.1 18.2 546
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 73.3 1.7 70.3 76.9 112
Total sugars % DM 1.7 0.3 1.0 2.2 57
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.8 1.3 16.5 21.3 8 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.4 0.2 0.1 1.1 116
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.9 0.6 1.8 4.7 208
Potassium g/kg DM 3.6 0.6 2.4 5.0 136
Sodium g/kg DM 0.5 0.4 0.0 1.2 35
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.3 0.2 0.9 1.8 84
Manganese mg/kg DM 14 6 5 26 50
Zinc mg/kg DM 24 7 15 47 36
Copper mg/kg DM 10 5 2 19 39
Iron mg/kg DM 116 72 40 307 34
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.2 1.0 5.5 7.8 5
Arginine % protein 6.6 4.9 3.6 16.4 6
Aspartic acid % protein 6.6 0.8 5.6 7.5 5
Cystine % protein 2.1 0.6 1.2 2.7 7
Glutamic acid % protein 18.8 1.7 15.9 20.3 5
Glycine % protein 4.0 1.1 3.3 6.2 6
Histidine % protein 3.4 1.3 2.1 5.5 5
Isoleucine % protein 4.4 2.6 3.1 9.8 6
Leucine % protein 12.6 0.6 11.4 13.1 6
Lysine % protein 2.9 0.4 2.4 3.3 7
Methionine % protein 1.7 0.8 0.6 3.1 7
Phenylalanine % protein 5.7 1.9 4.6 9.6 6
Proline % protein 9.5 9.5 9.6 2
Serine % protein 5.0 0.4 4.4 5.4 5
Threonine % protein 4.2 2.0 2.8 8.2 6
Tryptophan % protein 1.8 1
Tyrosine % protein 5.4 4.0 3.2 13.5 6
Valine % protein 5.3 1.9 4.0 8.9 6
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.7 3.9 85.2 92.9 3 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 85.5 3.8 83.3 90.9 3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.6 0.6 13.6 14.7 3 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 64.2 *
a (N) % 9.7 1
b (N) % 63.5 1
c (N) h-1 0.050 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 45 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 38 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 87.9 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.6 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 79.7 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 15.2 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 14.8 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abate et al., 1984; AFZ, 2011; Aganga et al., 2000; CGIAR, 2009; Cilliers et al., 1998; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; Donkoh et al., 2009; Fagbenro et al., 2004; Fasuyi, 2005; Jacob et al., 1996; Jacob et al., 1996; Maliboungou et al., 1998; Mandibaya et al., 1999; Naik, 1967; Owusu-Domfeh et al., 1970; Pozy et al., 1996; Sibanda et al., 1993; Wainman et al., 1984; Walker, 1975

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:26

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 87.2 1.8 84.9 90.8 108
Crude protein % DM 9.5 0.7 8.2 11.5 128
Crude fibre % DM 2.3 0.3 1.8 2.8 48
NDF % DM 11.9 2.4 8.5 16.4 19
ADF % DM 3.1 0.6 2.1 4.5 18
Lignin % DM 0.6 0.2 0.5 1.1 6
Ether extract % DM 4.1 0.3 3.2 4.9 92
Ash % DM 1.4 0.1 1.2 1.8 69
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 73.1 1.3 69.0 74.8 48
Total sugars % DM 3.1 0.3 2.8 3.6 6
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 0.3 18.1 19.3 33 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.6 19
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.9 0.2 2.5 3.1 18
Potassium g/kg DM 3.5 0.1 3.4 3.6 5
Sodium g/kg DM 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.2 0.1 1.0 1.3 16
Manganese mg/kg DM 13 10 4 35 16
Zinc mg/kg DM 23 7 17 40 16
Copper mg/kg DM 2 0 2 3 6
Iron mg/kg DM 21 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.5 0.3 6.8 8.0 24
Arginine % protein 4.9 0.4 4.2 5.7 33
Aspartic acid % protein 6.8 0.5 5.8 7.7 24
Cystine % protein 2.2 0.3 1.6 2.7 16
Glutamic acid % protein 18.1 0.9 16.4 19.6 24
Glycine % protein 3.9 0.4 3.1 4.3 22
Histidine % protein 2.9 0.2 2.5 3.4 25
Isoleucine % protein 3.6 0.2 3.2 3.9 35
Leucine % protein 11.8 0.9 9.4 13.6 36
Lysine % protein 3.1 0.3 2.6 3.7 36
Methionine % protein 2.1 0.2 1.9 2.5 24
Phenylalanine % protein 4.8 0.3 4.2 5.3 35
Proline % protein 8.7 0.7 7.5 9.7 17
Serine % protein 4.7 0.3 4.3 5.1 24
Threonine % protein 3.5 0.2 3.2 3.9 37
Tryptophan % protein 0.7 0.1 0.6 0.8 19
Tyrosine % protein 3.4 0.7 2.2 4.6 19
Valine % protein 4.9 0.2 4.5 5.4 35
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 89.0 1.4 88.7 92.0 5 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 86.5 1.4 85.8 89.6 5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.7 0.2 13.4 14.0 5 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 67.0 *
a (N) % 9.6 1
b (N) % 87.7 1
c (N) h-1 0.041 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 54 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 45 7 33 45 3 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 88.1 2.1 85.3 91.4 8 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.5 0.9 14.6 17.0 8 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.1 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 81.4 5.6 72.7 86.9 6 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 15.4 0.1 15.4 16.2 4 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 15.1 0.2 14.7 15.1 4 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Adeola et al., 1995; Adeola et al., 1996; Adeola, 1996; Adeola, 2003; Adeola, 2006; Aderibigbe et al., 1993; AFZ, 2011; Aw-Yong et al., 1983; Batajoo et al., 1998; Behnke, 1983; Burgoon et al., 1991; Burgoon et al., 1992; Christen et al., 2010; Cousins et al., 1981; Crawford et al., 1978; Dale et al., 1994; Forster et al., 1994; Frigg, 1976; Getachew et al., 2004; Gibb et al., 2004; Grings et al., 1992; Han et al., 1976; Hannah et al., 1990; Herkelman et al., 1990; Herrera-Saldana et al., 1990; Hill et al., 1990; Hongtrakul et al., 1998; Klopfenstein, 1996; Lawrence et al., 1995; Lin et al., 1987; Luis et al., 1982; Martinez et al., 1990; McNiven et al., 1994; Morse et al., 1992; Muztar et al., 1979; Muztar et al., 1981; Nakamura et al., 1989; Nuez-Ortin et al., 2009; Pedersen et al., 2007; Saleh et al., 1998; Santra et al., 2011; Sibbald, 1979; Snow et al., 2004; Sosulki et al., 1990; Storey et al., 1982; Sullivan et al., 1989; Van Lunen et al., 1989; Wainman et al., 1984; Zhu et al., 1990

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:26

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 86.7 1.0 85.3 88.6 67
Crude protein % DM 9.2 0.6 8.1 10.6 72
Crude fibre % DM 2.6 0.5 1.8 4.1 21
NDF % DM 13.3 3.2 8.3 18.3 12
ADF % DM 2.7 0.9 1.5 4.3 11
Lignin % DM 0.7 0.3 0.4 1.2 6
Ether extract % DM 4.4 0.5 3.6 5.2 24
Ash % DM 1.4 0.3 1.1 2.9 27
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 71.8 1.0 69.9 73.7 51
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 0.1 18.7 19.0 3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.4 0.4 0.0 1.4 11
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.3 1.4 2.4 7.9 13
Potassium g/kg DM 3.5 3.4 3.6 2
Sodium g/kg DM 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.4 1.3 1.4 2
Manganese mg/kg DM 7 2 5 9 3
Zinc mg/kg DM 22 5 19 28 3
Copper mg/kg DM 2 1 2 3 3
Iron mg/kg DM 76 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 6.9 0.8 6.0 7.4 3
Arginine % protein 4.9 0.8 4.0 5.9 4
Aspartic acid % protein 6.7 0.7 6.1 7.4 3
Cystine % protein 2.3 0.1 2.1 2.5 5
Glutamic acid % protein 17.3 1.4 15.6 18.4 3
Glycine % protein 4.5 0.6 4.0 5.2 3
Histidine % protein 3.3 0.6 3.0 4.2 4
Isoleucine % protein 3.5 0.2 3.4 3.7 4
Leucine % protein 11.2 1.6 8.9 12.9 5
Lysine % protein 3.1 0.7 2.4 4.3 5
Methionine % protein 2.0 0.3 1.7 2.5 5
Phenylalanine % protein 4.6 0.4 4.0 5.0 4
Serine % protein 4.8 0.4 4.4 5.1 3
Threonine % protein 3.8 0.4 3.2 4.3 5
Tryptophan % protein 0.7 1
Tyrosine % protein 2.9 0.4 2.5 3.4 4
Valine % protein 5.1 0.6 4.7 5.9 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.3 82.9 88.3 2 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 85.9 80.6 85.9 2 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.6 12.7 13.6 2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 65.8 *
a (N) % 42.8 1
b (N) % 57.2 1
c (N) h-1 0.038 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 71 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 65 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 88.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.5 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.1 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 80.3 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Alcalde et al., 2011; Arnaud et al., 2005; Bastos et al., 2005; Carvalho Junior et al., 2009; Cirad, 2008; Embrapa, 1991; Fialho et al., 1995; Marcondes et al., 2009; Oliveira et al., 2007; Ribeiro et al., 2004; Ribeiro Filho et al., 2000; Rodrigues, 2001; Wainman et al., 1984

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:26

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 87.2 1.6 83.4 91.3 50
Crude protein % DM 9.7 0.9 7.8 11.3 51
Crude fibre % DM 2.6 0.4 2.1 3.5 25
NDF % DM 13.2 4.7 10.4 20.2 4
ADF % DM 4.4 0.8 3.3 5.6 5
Lignin % DM 1.4 1
Ether extract % DM 4.2 0.6 3.2 5.5 33
Ash % DM 1.5 0.4 1.0 2.6 24
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 71.0 1.7 68.8 74.3 17
Total sugars % DM 3.7 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 0.3 18.2 18.8 4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.7 0.9 0.1 2.2 13
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.4 0.8 2.2 5.1 14
Potassium g/kg DM 4.3 0.5 3.7 5.0 4
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.4 0.1 1.2 1.6 4
Zinc mg/kg DM 34 1
Copper mg/kg DM 5 1
Iron mg/kg DM 790 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.7 6.6 8.8 2
Arginine % protein 5.1 4.3 5.9 2
Aspartic acid % protein 7.1 6.7 7.5 2
Cystine % protein 2.1 1
Glutamic acid % protein 17.7 15.3 20.1 2
Glycine % protein 4.3 4.0 4.5 2
Histidine % protein 2.8 1
Isoleucine % protein 3.6 3.3 3.9 2
Leucine % protein 10.6 9.9 11.3 2
Lysine % protein 3.0 0.5 2.5 3.4 3
Methionine % protein 2.1 1.9 2.2 2
Phenylalanine % protein 5.4 4.9 5.8 2
Proline % protein 6.9 1
Serine % protein 4.8 4.8 4.8 2
Threonine % protein 3.6 3.5 3.7 2
Tryptophan % protein 0.9 1
Tyrosine % protein 2.3 1
Valine % protein 4.4 4.4 4.5 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.2 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 85.8 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.5 *
ME ruminants (gas production) MJ/kg DM 15.1 1
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 67.1 *
a (N) % 24.1 1
b (N) % 59.5 1
c (N) h-1 0.070 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 62 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 56 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 86.3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.8 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.6 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 80.2 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 15.2 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 14.9 14.2 14.9 2 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Baghel et al., 1982; Chandrasekharaiah et al., 2004; Chanjula et al., 2003; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; Darshan et al., 2007; Gowda et al., 2004; Holm, 1971; Huque et al., 1996; Keoboualapheth et al., 2003; Krishnamoorthy et al., 1995; Kuan et al., 1982; Le Duc Ngoan et al., 2001; Nageswara et al., 2003; Nguyen Nhut Xuan Dung et al., 2003; Queensland Department Of Primary Industries, 1985; Rajaguru et al., 1985; Ranaweera et al., 1981; Rao et al., 2000; Rao et al., 2004; Ravindran et al., 1994; Ravindran et al., 1996; Yin et al., 1993

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:26

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 65.0 3.7 56.8 75.1 946
Crude protein % DM 9.6 0.8 7.7 11.3 531
Crude fibre % DM 2.5 0.5 1.7 3.7 154
NDF % DM 13.7 2.6 11.8 17.6 4
ADF % DM 3.5 0.9 2.7 4.8 4
Lignin % DM 0.4 0.3 0.1 1.0 14
Ether extract % DM 3.9 0.6 2.5 5.0 143
Ash % DM 1.5 0.2 1.2 2.1 207
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 70.9 2.6 64.5 75.5 283
Total sugars % DM 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.6 5
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.5 0.9 0.0 3.5 14
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.1 1.0 1.9 5.8 14
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.3 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 4020 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 8.2 1
Arginine % protein 3.1 2.2 3.9 2
Aspartic acid % protein 6.7 1
Cystine % protein 2.1 1
Glutamic acid % protein 18.3 1
Glycine % protein 3.8 1
Histidine % protein 2.6 1
Isoleucine % protein 3.6 3.6 3.7 2
Leucine % protein 12.9 12.5 13.2 2
Lysine % protein 3.3 2.4 4.1 2
Methionine % protein 1.8 1.7 1.9 2
Phenylalanine % protein 5.0 1
Proline % protein 8.8 1
Serine % protein 4.8 1
Threonine % protein 3.5 3.5 3.6 2
Tyrosine % protein 4.4 1
Valine % protein 5.1 5.0 5.1 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.5 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 86.1 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.6 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 87.8 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.4 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.0 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Clark et al., 1993; Clark et al., 1997; Cunningham et al., 1993; Duncan et al., 1991; Skiba et al., 1999

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:26

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 87.7 1.4 84.0 89.8 80
Crude protein % DM 9.3 1.0 8.0 11.8 81
Crude fibre % DM 2.2 0.4 1.6 3.3 71
NDF % DM 13.1 9.9 16.2 2
ADF % DM 2.6 2.6 2.7 2
Lignin % DM 0.2 0.0 0.4 2
Ether extract % DM 4.3 0.4 3.7 5.1 62
Ash % DM 1.4 0.2 1.1 1.8 53
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 74.9 1.8 71.0 78.6 49
Total sugars % DM 1.8 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 18.2 18.8 2 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.6 0.5 0.1 1.5 33
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.8 0.4 2.3 3.5 35
Potassium g/kg DM 8.3 13.4 3.1 41.3 8
Sodium g/kg DM 0.0 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.3 0.2 1.1 1.5 7
Manganese mg/kg DM 10 6 3 21 7
Zinc mg/kg DM 24 6 18 33 4
Copper mg/kg DM 3 0 3 3 3
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.5 1
Arginine % protein 4.8 4.6 5.1 2
Aspartic acid % protein 7.1 1
Cystine % protein 1.9 0.7 1.2 2.7 3
Glutamic acid % protein 20.3 1
Glycine % protein 3.5 3.5 3.6 2
Histidine % protein 3.2 3.1 3.3 2
Isoleucine % protein 3.8 3.1 4.4 2
Leucine % protein 11.7 10.7 12.7 2
Lysine % protein 3.5 0.6 3.0 4.2 3
Methionine % protein 1.6 0.5 1.1 1.9 3
Phenylalanine % protein 5.2 5.1 5.3 2
Serine % protein 5.4 1
Threonine % protein 3.4 3.1 3.8 2
Tryptophan % protein 1.0 1
Tyrosine % protein 3.9 3.7 4.0 2
Valine % protein 5.6 4.4 6.7 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 89.0 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 86.6 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.7 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 88.8 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.6 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.0 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; Dewar, 1967; Embrapa, 1991; Jacob et al., 1996; Jacob et al., 1996; Naik, 1967; Owusu-Domfeh et al., 1970; Swaminathan et al., 1970; Wainman et al., 1984

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:26

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 85.8 1.0 83.4 88.4 262
Crude protein % DM 10.5 0.8 9.3 12.1 229
Crude fibre % DM 2.4 0.3 1.8 3.1 190
NDF % DM 12.7 2.6 9.1 15.6 10
ADF % DM 2.9 0.4 2.1 3.3 8
Lignin % DM 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.7 3
Ether extract % DM 4.4 0.3 3.8 5.2 119
Ash % DM 1.5 0.1 1.2 1.7 121
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 72.5 1.6 68.9 75.6 187
Total sugars % DM 1.9 1.9 1.9 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.8 0.2 18.6 19.2 8 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.4 18
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.2 0.3 2.7 3.7 18
Potassium g/kg DM 3.7 0.6 2.9 4.4 11
Sodium g/kg DM 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.3 0.2 1.1 1.7 12
Manganese mg/kg DM 6 3 4 11 6
Zinc mg/kg DM 23 5 17 30 6
Copper mg/kg DM 3 2 2 6 5
Iron mg/kg DM 26 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.6 0.3 7.2 8.1 8
Arginine % protein 4.6 0.8 3.4 5.7 8
Aspartic acid % protein 6.3 1.2 3.6 7.5 8
Cystine % protein 1.4 1
Glutamic acid % protein 18.2 1.3 16.2 20.1 8
Glycine % protein 3.7 0.4 3.1 4.3 7
Histidine % protein 3.0 0.4 2.5 3.6 6
Isoleucine % protein 3.5 0.3 3.1 4.1 9
Leucine % protein 12.1 1.1 10.2 13.6 9
Lysine % protein 3.0 0.4 2.4 3.6 9
Methionine % protein 1.9 0.7 0.6 2.5 5
Phenylalanine % protein 5.0 0.3 4.5 5.6 9
Proline % protein 8.6 0.5 7.9 9.3 5
Serine % protein 4.7 0.4 4.1 5.1 8
Threonine % protein 3.4 0.3 3.1 4.0 9
Tryptophan % protein 0.7 1
Tyrosine % protein 3.6 0.7 2.4 4.8 7
Valine % protein 4.9 0.6 4.2 5.9 9
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 0.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.7 85.2 92.9 2 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 86.4 83.3 90.9 2 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.6 13.6 14.7 2 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 88.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.5 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.1 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 78.5 74.0 83.0 2
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 14.9 14.7 15.1 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Aderibigbe et al., 1993; AFZ, 2011; Bell et al., 1993; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; Dale et al., 1994; Dewar, 1967; Han et al., 1976; Herrera-Saldana et al., 1990; Kamel et al., 1981; Luis et al., 1982; Naik, 1967; Narahari et al., 1984; Owusu-Domfeh et al., 1970; Rao et al., 2000; Rao et al., 2004; Sibbald, 1979; Snow et al., 2004; Wainman et al., 1984; Yamazaki et al., 1986

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:27

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.3 1.6 85.3 92.2 229
Crude protein % DM 9.2 1.0 7.5 11.8 198
Crude fibre % DM 2.0 0.5 1.0 3.9 90
NDF % DM 11.9 1.8 9.1 15.6 15
ADF % DM 3.2 0.8 2.4 4.9 13
Lignin % DM 0.9 0.4 0.4 1.7 10
Ether extract % DM 2.5 1.1 1.0 5.5 89
Ash % DM 1.2 0.5 0.6 2.6 109
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 77.5 4.3 67.4 83.9 196
Total sugars % DM 1.4 0.4 0.9 1.7 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 0.2 18.3 19.1 8 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.3 1.6 0.1 5.8 14
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.3 1.2 0.8 4.2 16
Potassium g/kg DM 3.3 0.2 3.2 3.5 3
Sodium g/kg DM 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.2 0.1 1.2 1.3 3
Manganese mg/kg DM 5 1 4 6 4
Zinc mg/kg DM 18 3 16 23 4
Copper mg/kg DM 2 0 2 2 3
Iron mg/kg DM 16 4 14 21 3
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.1 0.5 6.7 7.6 3
Arginine % protein 4.3 0.6 3.6 4.8 3
Aspartic acid % protein 6.4 0.5 5.9 6.9 3
Cystine % protein 2.1 0.2 1.9 2.3 3
Glutamic acid % protein 17.5 0.8 17.0 18.4 3
Glycine % protein 3.7 0.4 3.2 4.0 3
Histidine % protein 3.0 0.6 2.4 3.6 3
Isoleucine % protein 3.5 0.1 3.4 3.7 3
Leucine % protein 11.7 0.8 11.2 12.6 3
Lysine % protein 2.7 0.7 1.9 3.3 3
Methionine % protein 2.1 0.1 2.0 2.2 3
Phenylalanine % protein 4.7 0.3 4.4 5.0 3
Proline % protein 8.2 8.1 8.4 2
Serine % protein 4.7 0.4 4.4 5.1 3
Threonine % protein 3.5 0.4 3.2 3.9 3
Tryptophan % protein 0.8 1
Tyrosine % protein 3.1 2.8 3.3 2
Valine % protein 4.9 0.2 4.7 5.1 3
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 89.5 3.8 86.8 94.2 3 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 86.8 3.2 85.5 92.0 3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.7 0.7 13.7 14.9 3 *
a (N) % 11.0 1
b (N) % 36.0 1
c (N) h-1 0.050 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 31 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 27 4 25 33 5 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 89.7 88.9 90.8 2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.8 16.4 17.1 2 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.4 0.4 15.7 16.5 4 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.1 *
 
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 82.4 *
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 15.4 1
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 15.1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; De Boever et al., 1984; Dewar, 1967; Duncan et al., 1991; Ham et al., 1994; Herkelman et al., 1990; Kendall et al., 1982; Lund et al., 2008; McNiven et al., 1994; Morgan et al., 1975; Rodrigues, 2001; Sequeira et al., 2000; Wainman et al., 1984

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:27

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 86.7 0.7 85.5 88.1 17
Crude protein % DM 9.8 0.9 8.9 12.4 28
Crude fibre % DM 2.6 0.6 2.1 4.0 9
NDF % DM 12.9 1
ADF % DM 4.4 1
Lignin % DM 1.0 1
Ether extract % DM 7.3 0.6 6.4 8.3 25
Ash % DM 1.5 0.3 1.1 2.4 18
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 68.9 1.4 65.8 71.5 24
Total sugars % DM 2.5 0.9 1.1 4.7 10
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.8 0.4 18.4 19.7 11 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.1 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.1 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.1 0.2 6.9 7.3 3
Arginine % protein 4.8 0.5 4.2 5.2 4
Aspartic acid % protein 6.2 0.5 5.6 6.5 3
Cystine % protein 2.1 1
Glutamic acid % protein 17.3 0.5 16.9 17.9 3
Glycine % protein 3.8 0.1 3.7 3.9 3
Histidine % protein 3.4 0.2 3.3 3.6 3
Isoleucine % protein 3.5 0.4 2.8 3.7 4
Leucine % protein 10.9 0.4 10.5 11.4 4
Lysine % protein 2.7 0.1 2.6 2.8 4
Methionine % protein 2.3 0.2 2.1 2.5 4
Phenylalanine % protein 4.8 0.0 4.8 4.9 3
Proline % protein 8.5 0.2 8.3 8.8 3
Serine % protein 4.8 0.1 4.8 4.9 3
Threonine % protein 3.3 0.1 3.1 3.4 4
Tryptophan % protein 0.5 1
Tyrosine % protein 3.4 0.1 3.3 3.5 3
Valine % protein 4.7 0.4 4.2 5.0 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.3 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 86.4 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.7 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 87.4 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.4 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.0 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.8 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 80.0 2.6 78.0 83.0 3
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 16.8 0.4 16.1 17.1 8

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Lessire et al., 2003; Saleh et al., 1998; Snow et al., 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:27

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 8.7 1
Ether extract % DM 4.0 1
Ash % DM 1.7 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.6 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.7 1
Arginine % protein 7.0 1
Aspartic acid % protein 9.4 1
Glutamic acid % protein 14.6 1
Glycine % protein 4.6 1
Histidine % protein 3.9 1
Isoleucine % protein 3.4 1
Leucine % protein 7.2 1
Lysine % protein 4.1 1
Methionine % protein 2.3 1
Phenylalanine % protein 3.8 1
Proline % protein 7.8 1
Serine % protein 4.6 1
Threonine % protein 3.7 1
Tyrosine % protein 3.4 1
Valine % protein 5.2 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 81.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Snow et al., 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:27

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2017. Maize grain. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/556 Last updated on June 9, 2017, 11:22

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)