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Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)

Description and recommendations

Common names

Jack bean, feijao de porco (Brazil), fève Jacques, frijol espada, sword bean (Australia), one-eye bean (West Indies), horse gram, chickasaro lima bean, overlock (USDA, 2009 ; FAO, 2009)

Synonyms

Canavalia ensifolia (DC.) Makino, Canavalia gladiata DC. var. ensiformis DC., Dolichos ensiformis L.

Description

Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.) is a climbing perennial legume commonly cultivated as an annual. It is up to 2 m high with 8-20 cm long trifoliate leaves and a strong root system. Flowers are pink, mauve or white with a red base. Pods are up to 36 cm long and contain 1-2 cm long, ellipsoid seeds. Pods and seeds are edible and used for food, the young pods being cooked as vegetable. The whole plant, the pods and seeds are also used to feed animals.

Distribution

Jack bean is native to tropical Africa and to South and Central America but is naturalized and cultivated worldwide (USDA, 2009; Chee et al., 1992). While it thrives in humid lowland tropics, it can also be found at altitudes up to 1800 m. Optimal annual rainfall is between 800-2000 mm but its deep rooting system allows it to withstand dry periods. It is reported to be tolerant to waterlogging and salinity (Ecoport, 2009). Jack bean has been reported as being antagonistic or suppressive of nematodes, particularly when used for intercropping in banana plantations (Vargas-Ayala et al., 2000) but this effect is disputed (Ternisien et al., 1989; Kashaija et al., 2004).

Environmental impact

Jack bean is used in conservation agriculture with maize and cassava. It is generally recognized as a soil improver. In Mauritius, it is ploughed in for green manure for sugar cane after flowering (FAO, 2009).

Potential constraints

Jack bean seeds and foliage contain several anti-nutritional factors: concanavaline A (a lectin protein used in biotechnology), canavanine (a structural analogue of arginine) and canatoxin. Fresh forage and raw seeds are generally detrimental to animals. Cattle consuming too much seed meal develop symptoms such as fever, nasal discharge, lameness and prostration (Chee et al., 1992). It has been shown that 28 g of seed per 0.73 kg body weight are lethal to cattle (FAO, 2009). Dehulling, heat treatments and soaking have been recommended in order to lower the level of antinutritional factors. The seeds show urease activity likely to release ammonia: it is recommended to avoid using it with urea-treated feed in ruminants.

Nutritional attributes

The whole plant, the pods and the seeds are used to feed animals.

Ruminants

Foliage

Fresh forage is not palatable to ruminants and is eaten only in small amounts. However, cattle can gradually get used to it and acquire a taste for it (Chee et al., 1992). Drying results in higher intake. In goats, jack bean forage has been found worth considering for a dry season feed strategy in Nigeria (Akingbade et al., 2007).

Seeds

In cattle, diets containing 30% of jack bean seeds have an adverse effect on average daily gain (8.3 % decrease). Supplementing grazing dairy cows with ground pods had no depressive effect on milk yield (Paredes et al., 1984). In sheep, increasing the inclusion rate from 22 % to 32 % resulted in lower rumen fermentation (Mora et al., 1986). In pre-weaning calves, supplementation with jack bean seeds resulted in lower live weight and daily gain compared to the soybean meal and maize-based diets (Troccoli et al., 1989).

Pigs

In growing pigs, Canavalia seeds were found to have a negative effect on average daily gain whatever the process (raw, alkali-treated, autoclaved or extruded) and the level of inclusion (5 to 15 %) (Risso et al., 1992). However, diets containing up to 20% toasted seeds (at 194°C for 18 minutes) were not detrimental to feed intake and weight gain (Michelangeli et al., 2004).

Poultry

Raw seeds, even at inclusion levels as low as 5%, have negative effects on broilers (decreased weight gain, increased feed conversion ratio, alterations on the liver, pancreas and kidneys) (Akinmutimi, 2006 ; Akanji et al., 2007b; Ologhobo et al., 2003). For this reason, it is recommended to process the seeds before feeding them to animals in order to reduce the antinutritional factors. However, autoclaving alone is not sufficient to mitigate deleterious effects of Jack bean. It may thus be useful to combine soaking and autoclaving or boiling, soaking and shaking (Belmar et al., 1999). The following table recapitulates the suggested methods and maximum inclusion rates.

Table 1. Inclusion rates in poultry for Canavalia ensiformis seeds

Poultry type Processing method Max. inclusion rate Reference
Broilers Cooking 5 % Akinmutimi, 2006
Broilers Cooking 7.5 % Akinmutimi et al., 2008
Broilers Cooking 10 % Agbede, 2005
Chicks Slow, medium temperature roasting ? Leon et al., 1998
Broilers Cracking and cooking 20 % Udedibie et al., 2002
Young chicks Boiling Better growth and protein utilisation Gupta et al., 1995
Laying hens Boiling 10 % Udedibie, 1991
Laying hens Urea-ensiling and boiling 20 % Udedibie, 1991
Young chicks KHCO3 extraction followed by autoclaving 28 % D'Mello et al., 1991
Broilers 2-stage cooking followed by microbial fermentation 20 % Esonu et al., 1996a
Broilers Soaking in trona solution followed by cooking Negative effects Esonu et al., 2000

Rabbits

Jack beans can be used to supplement rabbit diets and processing is recommended. Soaked and cooked jack bean enhance feed intake, growth rate and feed/gain ratio (Bamikole et al., 2000; Udedibie et al., 2005). However, the muscles of rabbits fed on 30 % soaked jack bean were fatter and contained less protein (Udedibie et al., 2005). The following table presents the inclusion rates found in the literature.

Table 2. Inclusion rates in rabbits for Canavalia ensiformis seeds

Processing method Max. inclusion rates Reference
Raw 14 % Udedibie et al., 2005
Heat 10 % Bamikole et al., 2000
Drying, milling and cooking for 40 min 20 % Esonu et al., 1996b
Autoclave 28 % El-Kelawy et al., 2000
Soaking in water 30 % Udedibie et al., 2005

Fish

Jack bean seed meal has been recommended as a protein source for Nile tilapia fingerlings. Cracking followed by cooking allowed for a 20 % inclusion rate, and cooking in a trona solution made possible up to 30 % seed meal in the diet (Fagbenro et al., 2004).

Citation

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2013. Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/327 Last updated on January 28, 2013, 8:57

Tables

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 89.4 3.4 85.3 96.0 10  
Crude protein % DM 29.2 4.3 20.5 36.3 18  
Crude fibre % DM 10.1 1.7 7.8 12.9 9  
NDF % DM 34.3   32.3 36.4 2  
ADF % DM 13.8       1  
Lignin % DM 1.6   1.1 2.0 2  
Ether extract % DM 2.5 0.5 1.6 3.1 10  
Ash % DM 3.9 1.7 2.8 9.7 16  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5 1.4 16.9 19.8 4  
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 1.8 0.8 1.0 3.2 6  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.8 1.9 2.7 7.1 5  
Potassium g/kg DM 9.3 1.0 8.3 10.3 3  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.8 0.3 1.5 2.0 3  
Manganese mg/kg DM 1       1  
Zinc mg/kg DM 38   3 73 2  
Copper mg/kg DM 42   1 83 2  
Iron mg/kg DM 731       1  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 4.5 0.9 3.3 5.3 4  
Arginine % protein 5.7 1.4 4.1 8.0 7  
Aspartic acid % protein 11.0 2.3 8.2 13.5 4  
Cystine % protein 0.7 0.2 0.6 0.9 4  
Glutamic acid % protein 13.2 4.1 9.3 18.2 4  
Glycine % protein 4.2 0.8 3.2 5.2 6  
Histidine % protein 3.2 0.8 2.3 4.5 7  
Isoleucine % protein 4.4 1.2 3.3 6.3 6  
Leucine % protein 7.8 1.5 6.4 10.2 7  
Lysine % protein 5.8 1.4 4.5 7.8 7  
Methionine % protein 1.1 0.3 0.8 1.5 5  
Phenylalanine % protein 4.8 1.0 3.4 6.1 7  
Proline % protein 3.4   2.8 4.1 2  
Serine % protein 5.2 1.1 4.3 7.0 5  
Threonine % protein 3.9 0.4 3.4 4.4 7  
Tryptophan % protein 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.3 5  
Tyrosine % protein 3.1 0.8 2.0 4.2 6  
Valine % protein 4.6 0.9 3.7 5.9 6  
               
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 4.0       1  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 90.8         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 90.1         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.7         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.2         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 80.5       1  
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 74.3         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.7         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Akanji et al., 2007; Akingbade et al., 2009; Barnstein, 1914; Bressani et al., 1987; Diaz et al., 2002; D'Mello et al., 1991; Drozdenko, 1965; El Maadoudi, 2004; Elliott, 1956; Esonu et al., 1996; Fagbenro et al., 2004; Landry et al., 1988; Leon et al., 1989; Leon et al., 1990; Lon-Wo et al., 2002; Ogunji et al., 2003; Ologhobo, 1992; Pizzani et al., 2006; Udedibie, 1991; Yin et al., 1993

Last updated on 26/02/2013 10:32:37

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.0 1.4 89.9 94.3 6
Crude protein % DM 24.2 2.5 20.1 28.3 12
Crude fibre % DM 8.9 2.4 6.0 12.0 8
Ether extract % DM 4.0 1.0 2.9 6.0 8
Ash % DM 2.9 1.0 1.4 4.0 10
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.9 1.9 16.1 19.6 4
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.2 1.1 1.2 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 6.8 6.5 7.0 2
Potassium g/kg DM 7.0 3.0 10.9 2
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.1 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.0 0.3 1.6 2.2 4
Zinc mg/kg DM 44 2 42 47 4
Copper mg/kg DM 223 25 200 258 4
Iron mg/kg DM 373 104 279 521 4
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 3.8 3.7 4.0 2
Arginine % protein 5.4 0.2 5.1 5.6 4
Aspartic acid % protein 10.3 1
Glutamic acid % protein 10.6 1
Glycine % protein 3.7 0.1 3.5 3.8 4
Histidine % protein 3.0 0.4 2.6 3.5 4
Isoleucine % protein 5.7 1.5 4.4 7.1 4
Leucine % protein 8.0 0.6 7.5 8.8 4
Lysine % protein 5.6 0.5 4.9 6.0 4
Methionine % protein 1.2 1.2 1.2 2
Phenylalanine % protein 4.6 0.5 4.2 5.3 4
Proline % protein 3.9 3.7 4.0 2
Serine % protein 4.6 0.2 4.4 4.9 4
Threonine % protein 3.9 0.4 3.6 4.4 4
Tyrosine % protein 3.2 0.2 3.1 3.5 4
Valine % protein 5.1 0.4 4.8 5.6 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 91.2 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 76.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.6 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Akingbade et al., 2009; Bressani et al., 1987; D'Mello et al., 1991; Esonu et al., 1996; Fagbenro et al., 2004; Leon et al., 1990; Lon-Wo et al., 2002; Pizzani et al., 2006; Udedibie, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:14

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 4.5 1
Crude fibre % DM 48.1 1
Ether extract % DM 1.5 1
Ash % DM 3.8 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.1 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.0 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.1 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 78.9 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 14.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 2.8 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Linton et al., 1934

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:14

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.1 1
Crude protein % DM 4.1 1
NDF % DM 71.6 1
ADF % DM 54.8 1
Lignin % DM 12.6 1
Ash % DM 8.2 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Dixon, 1986

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:15

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 27.6 9.5 21.0 38.5 3
Crude protein % DM 19.1 3.7 14.9 24.8 13
Crude fibre % DM 35.0 5.4 27.4 45.4 7
NDF % DM 45.5 13.1 32.4 62.6 4
ADF % DM 31.1 9.2 17.2 43.2 6
Lignin % DM 10.3 1.7 8.2 12.1 6
Ether extract % DM 1.8 0.3 1.1 2.2 9
Ash % DM 9.4 2.3 6.7 14.1 11
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 24.4 7.2 14.8 33.4 5
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.6 0.4 2.3 3.1 3
Potassium g/kg DM 15.6 4.8 10.0 21.7 4
Magnesium g/kg DM 6.3 1.3 4.9 7.5 4
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 39.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 60.1 *
OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production) % 58 1
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 57.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.7 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.4 *
ME ruminants (gas production) MJ/kg DM 8.2 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Ajayi et al., 2009; Akingbade et al., 2007; Diaz et al., 2002; Dixon, 1986; Johnson et al., 1918; Ly et al., 2002; Padilla et al., 2002; Savon et al., 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:15

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 21.0 1
Crude protein % DM 22.9 2.1 20.3 24.8 4
Crude fibre % DM 34.3 1
NDF % DM 35.7 32.4 38.9 2
ADF % DM 27.1 27.1 27.2 2
Lignin % DM 9.2 8.2 10.2 2
Ether extract % DM 2.2 1
Ash % DM 11.2 2.0 9.5 14.1 4
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 26.8 25.4 28.2 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.1 1
Potassium g/kg DM 12.4 10.0 14.8 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 6.5 5.4 7.5 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Diaz et al., 2002; Dixon, 1986; Ly et al., 2002; Padilla et al., 2002

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:15

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.1 1
Crude protein % DM 27.3 1
NDF % DM 46.0 1
ADF % DM 32.9 1
Lignin % DM 8.0 1
Ash % DM 9.3 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 14.1 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.5 1
Potassium g/kg DM 27.8 1
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 5.1 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CGIAR, 2009

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:15

References

References

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